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"Wake Up, Mom: Gender Differences in Accepting Sleep Interruptions" - Science Daily. 11/16/2010.
Sarah Burgard's study of of 20,000 working parents from 2003-2007 reveals that working mothers are not only much more likely to get up at night to care for others than are working fathers, but that their sleep interruptions last longer on average. Given this greater burden, says Burgard, "sleep interruption may represent an under-recognized 'motherhood penalty' that influences life chances and well-being."