White Segregation Decreases As Black Segregation Remains Common

By Dan Keating
Source: Wonkblog

Over the past 20 years, whites and blacks have experienced opposite trends in segregation. Asians, Hispanics and blacks are moving into historically white neighborhoods. Vastly fewer whites live surrounded by just other white people. Whites look around and see multi-ethnic neighbors. They perceive expanded opportunity and integration because that is what they see. And they think everyone else is experiencing the same things.

But a Washington Post analysis of Census data shows that the experience in historically African American neighborhoods of major cities has been far different, as they have remained heavily isolated. Whites, Asians and Hispanics are not moving into those neighborhoods, and blacks who remain there experience persistent segregation.

Read the full story

Counting Same-Sex Couples

Both the Pew Research Center and the FiveThirtyEight blog have done write up about the trouble the U.S. Census has counting same-sex couples.

Pew’s story (which came out in September) discusses the way gender reporting on the census confounds the data.

The story in FiveThirtyEight reports on how the Census Bureau is working to make it’s questions gather more accurate data.

The Antidote for “Anecdata”: A Little Science Can Separate Data Privacy Facts from Folklore

The Antidote for “Anecdata”: A Little Science Can Separate Data Privacy Facts from Folklore
Daniel Barth-Jones | Info/Law Blog [Harvard]
November 21, 2014
This is a great piece that shows again that most of the publicity about re-identification in data are overblown:

The 11 in 173 million risk demonstrated for this celebrity ride re-identification (or 1 in 15,743,614) is truly infinitesimal. To put this in perspective, this risk is over 1,000 times smaller than one’s lifetime risk of being hit by lighting. With proper de-identification applied and the cryptographic hash problem fixed in any future data releases, this spooky specter of celebrity cyber-stalking using TLC taxi data is likely to vanish as soon as one turns on the lights.

This blog post is in reaction to the release of NYC taxi medallion data, which were improperly anonymized. A previous blog post described the data.

Here is the piece that sensationalizes the possibility of re-identification, based on famous people who ride cabs.
Riding with the Stars: Passenger Privacy in the NYC Taxicab Dataset
Anthony Tockar | Neustar Blog
September 15, 2014

Big Data: NYC Taxi Cab Trips

This is a big data resource, and more. Check out the reaction to the bad anonymization here.

20GB of uncompressed data comprising more than 173 million individual trips. Each trip record includes the pickup and dropoff location and time, anonymized hack licence number and medallion number (i.e. the taxi’s unique id number, 3F38, in my photo above), and other metadata.

Before the link to the data, here’s an analysis based on similar data:
Why New Yorkers Can’t Find a Taxi When It Rains
Eric Jaffe | City Lab Blog
October 20, 2014
Provides a nice synopsis of some research using taxi cab rides. Read it for the links to the formal research papers.

New York City Taxi Cab Trips [in small chunks]

FOILing NYC’s Taxi Trip Data
Chris Whong | personal website of an Urbanist, Mapmaker, Data Junkie
March 18, 2014
a synopsis of how he got the data via a FOIA request & a link to the data on rides/fares as single files, instead of the chunked version above.

and the story about how the taxicab medallion IDs were improperly anonymized:

Poorly anonymized logs reveal NYC cab drivers’ detailed whereabouts
Dan Goodin | ars technica
June 23, 2014

On Taxis and Rainbows: Lessons from NYC’s improperly anonymized taxi logs
Vijay Pandurangan | Medium blog

Getting A More Accurate Count Of Arab Americans

The PSC Infoblog has reported on this earlier here, but this is still of interest.

The U.S. Census Is Trying To Get A More Accurate Count Of Arab Americans
Ben Casselman | fivethirtyeight.com Blog
November 24, 2014

Note that this article mentions that the Census Bureau did a special tabulation for Homeland Security to provide counts of Arab populations by geography (place and zip code).

Some Arabs have expressed reluctance to identify themselves on a government form, especially after the Census Bureau shared detailed data on the Arab-American population with the Department of Homeland Security in the early 2000s

These “detailed tabulations” referenced above, were public use tables from American FactFinder. Here’s the original FOIA request from the Electronic Privacy Information Center:

FOIA request: Department of Homeland Security Obtained Data on Arab Americans From Census Bureau [Source: EPIC]

Here is the example for Places drawn from DP-2. Here’s the example for Zip Codes drawn from (Tables PCT16 and PCT17).

Measuring Race in the Census: Its Fluid

Researchers at the Census Bureau and the Minnesota Population Center matched census responses across the 2000 and 2010 Census and examined changes in the Race/Hispanic origin responses. They found that the biggest change was Hispanics changing their “Other Race” choice in 2000 to “White” in 2010. The groups least likely to change responses were those who identified themselves as non-Hispanic white, black or Asian in 2000.

America’s Churning Races: Race and Ethnic Response Changes between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census
Center for Administrative Records Research and Applications & Minnesota Population Center
CARRA Working Paper #2014-09
August 8, 2014

This paper is nicely summarized here – based on the PAA version:

Millions of Americans changed their racial or ethnic identity from one census to the next
D’Vera Cohn | Pew Research Center
May 5, 2014

As a reminder, the Census Bureau has spent the better part of the past year, looking to change how it collects data on race and ethnicity.

U.S. Census looking at big changes in how it asks about race and ethnicity
D’Vera Cohn | Pew
March 14, 2014

2010 Census Race and Hispanic Origin Alternative Questionnaire Experiment[website]
2010 Census Race and Hispanic Origin Alternative Questionnaire Experiment[report]

Growing Numbers of Americans Are Remarrying

Four-in-Ten Couples are Saying “I Do,” Again
By Gretchen Livingston
Source: Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends

In 2013, fully four-in-ten new marriages included at least one partner who had been married before, and two-in-ten new marriages were between people who had both previously stepped down the aisle, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of newly released data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

Complete Report (PDF)

See also:
“The New American Family” in the ISR Sampler and Pam Smock’s interview on Stateside about the changing American Family

The Changing Geography of Immigration

Unauthorized Immigrant Totals Rise in 7 States, Fall in 14
By Jefferey S. Passel and D’Vera Cohn
Source: Pew Research Hispanic Trends Project

The U.S. unauthorized immigrant population has leveled off nationally after the Great Recession, but state trends have been more volatile. From 2009 to 2012, according to new Pew Research Center estimates, the population of unauthorized immigrants rose in seven states and fell in 14.

Complete Report (PDF)

See also:

Expansion of Free Lunch Could Have a Negative Effect on Research Data

By: Ben Wieder
Source: FiveThirtyEight

A new federal initiative that could provide millions of students with a free lunch might have an unexpected cost for researchers and state educational agencies.

“It’s obviously good for kids, but from a pure data perspective it provides some weaknesses,” said Brandon LeBeau, an assistant professor at the University of Iowa’s College of Education who has studied the use of free lunch eligibility in education research.

Read the full story

New NBER Working Papers

Will They Take the Money and Work? An Empirical Analysis of People’s Willingness to Delay Claiming Social Security Benefits for a Lump Sum
by Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell, Ralph Rogalla, Tatjana Schimetschek #20614
Abstract; PDF

More on Recent Evidence on the Effects of Minimum Wages in the United States
by David Neumark, J.M. Ian Salas, William Wascher #20619
Abstract; PDF

Estimation of Dynamic Discrete Choice Models by Maximum Likelihood and the Simulated Method of Moments
by Phillipp Eisenhauer, James J. Heckman, Stefano Mosso #20622
Abstract; PDF

Wealth Inequality in the United States since 1913: Evidence from Capitalized Income Tax Data
by Emmanuel Saez, Gabriel Zucman #20625
Abstract; PDF

What Should I Be When I Grow Up? Occupations and Unemployment over the Life Cycle
by Martin Gervais, Nir Jaimovich, Henry E. Siu, Yaniv Yedid-Levi #20628
Abstract; PDF

Affirmative Action and Stereotypes in Higher Education Admissions
by Prasad Krishnamurthy, Aaron Edlin #20629
Abstract; PDF

Family Planning: Program Effects
by Grant Miller, Kimberly Singer Babiarz #20586
Abstract; PDF

The Contribution of Behavior Change and Public Health to Improved U.S. Population Health
by Susan T. Stewart, David M. Cutler #20631
Abstract; PDF

A Schumpeterian Model of Top Income Inequality
by Charles I. Jones, Jihee Kim #20637
Abstract; PDF

Inputs in the Production of Early Childhood Human Capital: Evidence from Head Start
by Christopher Walters #20639
Abstract; PDF

The Demand for Effective Charter Schools
by Christopher R. Walters #20640
Abstract; PDF

The Evolution of Charter School Quality
by Patrick L. Baude, Marcus Casey, Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin #20645
Abstract; PDF

The Long Run Human Capital and Economic Consequences of High-Stakes Examinations
by Victor Lavy, Avraham Ebenstein, Sefi Roth #20647
Abstract; PDF

Do Beliefs Justify Actions or Do Actions Justify Beliefs? An Experiment on Stated Beliefs, Revealed Beliefs, and Social-Image Manipulation
by James Andreoni, Alison Sanchez #20649
Abstract; PDF

The War on Poverty’s Experiment in Public Medicine: Community Health Centers and the Mortality of Older Americans
by Martha J. Bailey, Andrew Goodman-Bacon #20653
Abstract; PDF

Is it all worth it? The experiences of new PhDs on the job market, 2007-2010
by Brooke Helppie McFall, Marta Murray-Close, Robert J. Willis #20654
Abstract; PDF

Political Polarization, Anticipated Health Insurance Uptake and Individual Mandate: A view from the Washington State
by Anirban Basu, Norma B. Coe, David E. Grembowski, Larry Kessler #20655
Abstract; PDF

Validating Teacher Effect Estimates Using Changes in Teacher Assignments in Los Angeles
by Andrew Bacher-Hicks, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger #20657
Abstract; PDF

Gray Matters: Fetal Pollution Exposure and Human Capital Formation
by Prashant Bharadwaj, Joshua Graff Zivin, Matthew Gibson, Christopher A. Neilson #20662
Abstract; PDF

Does Management Matter in Schools
by Nicholas Bloom, Renata Lemos, Raffaella Sadun, John Van Reenen #20667
Abstract; PDF

The Effect of High-Skilled Immigration on Patenting and Employment: Evidence from H-1B Visa Lotteries
by Kirk Doran, Alexander Gelber, Adam Isen #20668
Abstract; PDF

Social Investments, Informal Risk Sharing, and Inequality
by Attila Ambrus, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Matt Elliott #20669
Abstract; PDF