Archive for the 'Data' Category

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Inequality: States & Cities

Here are two reports on inequality – one for states, including historical data and one for the 50 largest cities. The state-based analysis uses state-level tax data whereas the city-based analysis uses the American Community Survey. The city-based study is referenced in a story in the New York Times.

The Increasingly Unequal States of America: Income Inequality by state, 1917 to 2011
Estelle Sommeiller and Mark Price | Economic Analysis and Research Network
February 19, 2013

All Cities Are Not Created Unequal
Alan Berube | Brookings
February 20, 2014
Appendix: Income Inequality in America’s 50 Largest Cities, 2007-2012

Study Finds Greater Income Inequality in Nation’s Thriving Cities
Annie Lowrey | New York Times
February 20, 2014

County-to-County Migration Flows

The Census Bureau has released county to county migration flow data from the 2007-2011 ACS. This allows researchers to look at outbound, inbound, and net migration flows by selected characteristics (education, household income, and individual income).

Perhaps, Governor Snyder had advance access to these data before his state-of-the-state address as the only positive net value for Wayne County (and Michigan) is “movers from abroad.” Wayne County has a net loss of 28,000 to other Michigan counties and a net loss of approximately 17,000 to out of state counties. It has about one-third of Michigan’s movers from abroad (7,620 out of 24,715).

Check out this spreadsheet for Michigan counties – click on image:

spreadsheet

[Click here for Michigan Data Table]

Data, Guides, and Flows Mapper Interface
2007-2011 County-to-County Migration Flows
Megan Benetsky | US Census Bureau
Very useful working paper, which shows the sorts of analyses possible with the data.

County-to-County Migration Flows Tables

Census Flows Mapper

Additional Press
Many New Educated Entrants to Big U.S. Cities Came from Overseas
Neil Shah | Wall Street Journal
February 6, 2014
This article quotes Bill Frey who notes that many of the higher educated migrants to big cities are foreign born.

A Detailed Map of the Net Migration Flows for Every U.S. County
Emily Badger | Atlantic Cities
February 11, 2014

New PUMA boundaries for the 2012 release of ACS data

The 2012 ACS releases (2012, 2010-2012, and 2008-2012) use new boundaries for PUMAs. These new definitions are based on new guidelines established by the Census Bureau as well as results from the 2010 Census.

PUMA Guidelines

The upshot of the guidelines is that the building blocks for PUMAs must be census tracts or counties. PUMAs can no longer be comprised of places or multiple places, especially as in the case of Michigan these multi-place PUMAs were sometimes comprised of non contiguous places.

The Census Bureau also encourages that the newly constructed PUMAs map to metropolitan areas.

The definition for the composition of PUMAs from the Census Bureau’s site is not all that informative. It is an Excel spreadsheet with the geographic identifier and Name of the PUMA, e.g., Northwest Detroit for PUMA 263208.

2010 Census Gazetteer Files: PUMAs

To know which census tracts are “Northwest Detroit” one needs to map census tracts to PUMAs. One can do this via the MableGeocorr site [Source: census tract; Target: PUMA2012].

Of course many PUMAs are comprised of multiple counties or a single county, so that sort of detail is not necessary for them. I will update this post later this week with a crosswalk, which includes “census tracts” for multi-PUMA counties and counties for single/combined county PUMAs.

Notable Publications from the Bureau of Justice Statistics

Below are selected recent publications from the Bureau of Justice Statistics:

Correctional Populations in the United States: 2012
Federal Justice Statistics, 2010
Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties: 2009 – Statistical Tables
Prisoners in 2012: Trends in Admissions and Releases, 1991-2012
Probation and Parole in the United States: 2012

And, here are links to data & reports from the Bureau of Justice Statistics:
Data | Reports | Analysis Tools | New Releases

Widening racial disparity in breast cancer deaths

The New York Times has a great interactive visualization of the widening racial disparity in breast cancer deaths drawn from data from the Cancer Institute. Previously, black women had lower breast cancer mortality than whites, but it is now higher. The trend is not exactly the same across all states.

tweet

[Click here for Data Visualization]

The New York Times article was inspired by a publication based on the trend in racial disparities in cancer mortality in the 25-largest cities in the US:

The racial disparity in breast cancer mortality in the 25 largest cities in the United States
Steven Whitman, Jennifer Orsi and Marc Hurlbert | Cancer Epidemiology
October 2011

Relevant to this topic is a link to the latest Health Disparities, 2013 report from CDC.

Economists in a Blizzard

Economists are at their annual meeting in the teeth of a big snowstorm. In case you missed the conference, here’s the presidential address by Claudia Golden on the cause of the remaining gender gap:

A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter
Claudia Goldin | Harvard University
American Economic Association Presidential Address [draft version]
January 4, 2014

More relevant to PSC is that Martha Bailey and Brad Hershbein were awarded the IZA Young Labor Economist Award for their paper The Opt-In Revolution? Contraception, Fertility Timing and the Gender Gap in Wages.

And via Twitter, Justin Wolfers points to some job openings for economists – internet economist.

tweet

[Link to Internet Economist article]

Human Behavior Trove Lures Economists to U.S. Tech Titans
By Aki Ito | Bloomberg
January 03, 2014

Death at the Summit: The story of Intrade

Death at the Summit
Graeme Wood | Pacific Standard Magazine
November 4, 2013

We have posted on prediction markets before, but this is a very nice, if long summary of the theory of prediction markets; use by scientists, mostly economists; the reaction to them by pundits; and the death of Intrade (and its founder).

Project Tycho: Historical Disease Data

Project Tycho is funded by NIH and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. It has taken historical data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) and created count data for diseases by location for the 125 year history of the surveillance system. Three levels of data have been made available to users from the Project Tycho website.

Other useful resources:

  • Materials and Methods: Digitication of US Weekly Surveillance Reports between 1888 and 2011
  • Preliminary State Reports (scroll down for access – here’s an example for Michigan)
  • What does Tycho stand for?
  • And, here is a paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine based on these data. It estimates that over 100 million cases of contagious diseases have been prevented in the U.S. since 1924 by vaccination programs against polio, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough).

    Contagious Diseases in the United States from 1888 to the Present
    New England Journal of Medicine
    November 28, 2013
    html | pdf

    Your Right Arm for a Publication in AER

    Here are a few posts on the publication process. The first, is a piece that reports that economists would give up half a thumb to publish in AER. Is this true, economists? The next piece is on an app that users can download to ping journals every time there is an article they’d like to read but can’t because of gated access, e.g. an OA button. We even include an image of the button. The final two pieces are on replication, a growing area of interest among the open access community. The first discusses a team that replicated multiple psychology publications. Were they replicable? Read the article. The second discusses using github as a repository for data and code.

    Your Right Arm for a Publication in AER?
    Arthur Attema, Werner Brower, Job Van Exel | Economic Inquiry
    March 24 2013
    Abstract | Paper
    The time tradeoff (TTO) method is popular in medical decision making for valuing health states. We use it to elicit economists’ preferences for publishing in top economic journals and for living without limbs.

    Open Access Button Press Release
    November 18, 2013
    Tracking and mapping the impact of paywalls one click at a time
    OA button

    Push Button for Open Access
    Stephen Curry | The Guardian
    November 18, 2013

    Psychologists strike a blow for reproducibility
    Ed Yong | Nature
    November 26, 2013
    . . . To tackle this ‘replicability crisis’, 36 research groups formed the Many Labs Replication Project to repeat 13 psychological studies.

    Git/GitHub, Transparency, and Legitimacy in Quantitative Research
    Zach Jones | The Political Methodologist
    November 18, 2013

    Reproducibility and R: Neotoma
    Simon J. Goring | Williams Lab Meeting
    University of Wisconsin -Madison
    November 19, 2013
    These are slides for a presentation about ways to improve the reproducibility of scientific workflows using R.

    Running Afoul of Regulators

    23andme, the popular genetic testing website, has received a cease and desist letter from the FDA. The gist of the letter is that they have not provided evidence that their test works. And, the FDA also worries that the general public does not have the scientific background to interpret the results. For instance, if a woman does not carry the BRCA gene, does that mean that mammograms are not necessary?

    Another take on the ‘no evidence’ by John Wilbanks is that 23andme is sitting on some dynamite data (or not). His piece touches on open data.

    FDA Warning Letter
    November 22, 2013

    FDA warns maker of genetic-testing kit
    Brady Dennis | Washington Post
    November 25, 2013

    The FDA said the company repeatedly has failed to provide the scientific data necessary to prove that its test works as advertised.

    Perhaps more significantly, the agency’s action underscores its unease about the potential consequences of direct-to-consumer genetic tests, which can provide people with detailed information but not necessarily the context necessary to interpret what it means or how they should proceed.

    It also highlighted a contentious debate that has unfolded in recent years over how and whether the government should police an individual’s access to information about his or her genes.

    FDA Tells 23andMe to Stop Marketing DNA Kits; 23andMe Says It’s Sorry for Being Slow
    Liz Gannes | All Things D blog (allthingsd.com)
    November 25, 2013


    23andme gets a nastygram for the holidays

    John Wilbanks | Del-Fi Blog (http://del-fi.org/)
    November 25, 2013
    “But since 23andme won’t tell anyone, we don’t know which way. This fits into a general pattern of espousing open science while not practicing it for the company.”

    FDA slaps personal genomics startup 23andme with stiff warning
    Dan Munro | Forbes
    November 25, 2013

    The curious case of 23andMe
    Ryan Bradley | CNN Money
    November 26, 2013

    And here are two articles from the past on 23andme:

    What Are Genomic Testing Firms Like 23andMe Really After?
    Shannon Brownlee | Mother Jones
    December 2009

    Consumers Slow to Embrace the Age of Genomics
    Andrew Pollack | New York Times
    March 19, 2010