Raj Chetty of Harvard has been leading a team of researchers (including former Population Studies Center trainee Patrick Kline) on a project examining the geography of income mobility. From the project website:
Is America the “Land of Opportunity”? In two recent studies, we find that: (1) Upward income mobility varies substantially within the U.S. [summary][paper] Areas with greater mobility tend to have five characteristics: less segregation, less income inequality, better schools, greater social capital, and more stable families. (2) Contrary to popular perception, economic mobility has not changed significantly over time; however, it is consistently lower in the U.S. than in most developed countries. [summary][paper]
See The Equality of Opportunity Project website for executive summaries, papers, city rankings, data and more.
See the New York Times’ In Climbing Income Ladder, Location Matters for interactive maps based on this work.
According to a new report from the Pew Research Center, 8.7% of the U.S. black population is foreign born, nearly triple what it was in 1980.
Rapid growth in the black immigrant population is expected to continue. The Census Bureau projects that by 2060, 16.5% of U.S. blacks will be immigrants. In certain metropolitan areas, foreign-born blacks make up a significant share of the overall black population. For example, among the metropolitan areas with the largest black populations, roughly a third of blacks (34%) living in the Miami metro area are immigrants. In the New York metro area, that share is 28%. And in the Washington, D.C., area, it is 15%.
Download the complete report (PDF)
See also: 6 key findings about black immigration to the U.S.
The Pew Research Center analyzed Census data and found that between 2000 to 2013, 78 counties in 19 states changed from majority white population to populations where no racial or ethnic group is in the majority (their analysis only includes counties with populations of 10,000 or more in 2013).
Jed Kolko follows up Ben Casselman’s article Think Millennials Prefer the City? Think Again in FiveThirtyEight with some explanations of why this generation is less urban.
Most urban neighborhoods are not Brooklyn, and most 25- to 34-year-olds don’t have bachelor’s degrees.
Scott Clement of the Wonkblog examines five measures of racial prejudice from 3 waves of the General Social Survey conducted by NORC and finds that generally White attitudes towards Black people have not changed much since the Baby Boomers.
The Pew Research Center Fact Tank examines findings by David Swanson which uses 1910 and 1920 Census data to estimate the population of Hawaii in 1778, the year Capt. James Cook arrived.
In this case, Swanson took a detailed look at the 1910 and 1920 U.S. Census’s Native Hawaiian counts, tracking the survival rate of each five-year age group from one census to the next. For example, he looked at how many children who were newborns to age 4 in 1910 were counted as 10- to 14-year-olds in 1920, then did the same for each successive age group. For each group, he created a “reverse cohort change ratio,” which he used to go back in time and estimate the size of each age group for each decade until he got to 1770.
The article also reports on the growth of the Native Hawaiian population since the 1980s.
The New York Times Upshot looks at the County Health Rankings and Roadmap Project from University of Wisconsin and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation which studies income inequality and health at the county level.
We know that living in a poor community makes you less likely to live a long life. New evidence suggests that living in a community with high income inequality also seems to be bad for your health.
A study from researchers at the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute examined a series of risk factors that help explain the health (or sickness) of counties in the United States. In addition to the suspects you might expect — a high smoking rate, a lot of violent crime — the researchers found that people in unequal communities were more likely to die before the age of 75 than people in more equal communities, even if the average incomes were the same.
H/T Data Detectives
The Pew Research Center has been experimenting with mobile apps for “signal-contingent experience sampling” to gather data about how Americans use their smartphones. They have just released a report examining the possibilities of this method:
This report utilizes a form of survey known as “signal-contingent experience sampling” to gather data about how Americans use their smartphones on a day-to-day basis. Respondents were asked to complete two surveys per day for one week (using either a mobile app they had installed on their phone or by completing a web survey) and describe how they had used their phone in the hour prior to taking the survey. This report examines whether this type of intensive data collection is possible with a probability-based panel and to understand the differences in participation and responses when using a smartphone app as opposed to a web browser for this type of study.