Archive for the 'Group Disparities' Category

The Effects of Rurality on College Access and Choice

Via: Chronicle of Higher Education, The Ticker

By: Michael Andrew Koicich, Texas Tech University
Presented at:
AERA 2014 Annual Meeting
April 4, 2014

Abstract:

Students from rural areas have a history of lower educational attainment at both the K-12 and postsecondary levels, yet this population remains understudied. This study seeks to update past studies of rural youth by examining college attendance and choice decisions for students from non-metropolitan counties. Logistic regression is used to study the postsecondary attendance and institutional choice for rural students. Data are taken from two national data sets, the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 and the 2004 County Typologies published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which are then combined to conduct this analysis. The results of this study reveal clear disadvantages in postsecondary attendance, institutional level, selectivity, and other indicators resulting simply from living in a non-metropolitan county. The effect of most student characteristics did not vary substantially between rural and non-rural areas, but the analysis did reveal one interesting finding: The relationship between college attendance and choice and a student’s socioeconomic status was weaker for rural students than for non-rural students. Some systematic variation across rural communities was revealed, as well.

Full paper (PDF)

Smoking rate stays high among the poor

While smoking began as a practice among the well-off, according to a study published in Population Health Metrics, the habit is now much more prevalent in the working and poor classes.

New York Times article

Full text of the study

Men of Color and Community Colleges

By: Katherine Mangan
Source: Chronicle of Higher Education

Minority Male Students Face Challenge to Achieve at Community Colleges

Although black and Latino male students enter community colleges with higher aspirations than those of their white peers, white men are six times as likely to graduate in three years with a certificate or degree, according to a report released on Wednesday by the Center for Community College Student Engagement at the University of Texas here.

Full text of the article

Aspirations to Achievement: Report from the Center for Community College Student Engagement (PDF)

Widening racial disparity in breast cancer deaths

The New York Times has a great interactive visualization of the widening racial disparity in breast cancer deaths drawn from data from the Cancer Institute. Previously, black women had lower breast cancer mortality than whites, but it is now higher. The trend is not exactly the same across all states.

tweet

[Click here for Data Visualization]

The New York Times article was inspired by a publication based on the trend in racial disparities in cancer mortality in the 25-largest cities in the US:

The racial disparity in breast cancer mortality in the 25 largest cities in the United States
Steven Whitman, Jennifer Orsi and Marc Hurlbert | Cancer Epidemiology
October 2011

Relevant to this topic is a link to the latest Health Disparities, 2013 report from CDC.

Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Data Series: 1997-2011

These data are available via the Urban Institutes’s National Data Repository.

These data include information about mortgage loan applications, including the outcome of the application, information about the loan and applicant and location of the property (census tract). The Urban Institute has summarized the loan-level data into indicators on the racial and income distribution of borrowers, denial rates by race and income and loans from subprime lenders by race.

Users must register to download the data and provide attribution to the Urban Institute.

Urban Institute Data Repository
Click on UI Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Data Series and then the Data and Analysis tab.

Additional Resources:
A Guide to Home Mortgage Disclosure Data
K. Pettit and A. Droesch | Urban Institute
December 2008

The original source for these data comes from the FFIEC website

Death Certificates: Studies cast doubt on recorded cause-of-death

Making the Right Call, Even in Death
Lawrence Altman, MD | New York Times
July 1, 2013
This article discusses two studies, which illustrate problems with the recorded cause of death in death certificates.

The studies, published in the May issue of the journal Preventing Chronic Disease, support what researchers have long suspected: that heart disease is overreported as a cause of death, while diseases like pneumonia and cancer tend to be underreported. Equally disturbing, one of the studies suggests that the health system is far too cavalier about the accuracy of death certificates.

Survey of New York City Resident Physicians on Cause-of-Death Reporting, 2010
B. Wexelman, E. Eden & K. Rose | Preventing Chronic Disease
May 2013

Impact of a Hospital-Level Intervention to Reduce Heart Disease Overreporting on Leading Causes of Death
Teeb Al-Samarrai, et.al. | Preventing Chronic Disease
May 2013

International Migration Statistics for the US

Here are several links related to international migration in the US from the Census Burea.

International Migration is Projected to become Primary Driver of U.S. Population Growth for the first time in Nearly Two Centuries
Census Bureau
May 15, 2013
This link goes to an overview page. To the right are links to detailed tables and graphs showing migration and natural increase and population by age group.

Estimating Net International Migration for 2010 Demographic Analysis: An Overview of Methods and Results
Renuka Bhaskar, et.al. | Census Bureau
February 2013
This working paper is relevant for Demographic Analysis – technique used to understand the age, sex, and racial composition of a population and how it has changed over time via births, deaths, and migration. Here is a link to the Demographic Analysis site at the Census Bureau.

The Foreign Born [Census Bureau website]
This includes links to an infographic - part of which is included below on America’s foreign born in the last 50 years, data from the American Community Survey on home ownership, STEM degrees, newly arrived, and region-specific reports. There is also a 2010 tables package from the Current Population Survey.

graph of foreign born over time

[Link to complete infographic]

The Unauthorized Immigrant Population: Two Technical Excercises

This blog entry has two nice technical pieces. The first describes how PEW Hispanic (and others) estimate the undocumented population in the US. The second is a life-table exercise, which shows how many of the undocumented population will die waiting for citizenship – assuming a 13 year wait time.

Unauthorized Immigrants: How Pew Research Counts Them and What We Know About Them
Interview with Jeff Passel | Pew Hispanic
April 17, 2013
In this interview, Passel describes how he estimates the undocumented population in the US – including the other characteristics of this population, e.g., occupation, current residence, family composition, etc. using data from the Current Population Survey.

As a note, most of the reports PEW Hispanic writes on the undocumented population have an appendix, which provides a more technical description of the methodology. See page 25 of the following report for an example: Cohen, D’Vera and Jeff Passel. 2011. “Unauthorized Immigrant Population: National and State Trends, 2010″ Pew Hispanic: February 1, 2011.

The life-table exercise is from Philip Cohen’s Family Inequality blog.

How many people should die waiting for citizenship? 319,462?
Philip Cohen | Family Inequality Blog
April 24, 2013

This is a life-table exercise, taking the current age distribution of the undocumented population in the US and applying a life-table for Hispanics to the numbers. He describes his assumptions and invites folks to re-calibrate the numbers.

Note that Cohen takes a dig at Reinhart and Rogoff [previous PSC Infoblog entry] by making his spreadsheet available. And, he notes “If you don’t like the way Excel does the maths, by all means, fix it in R.”

Blast from the Past

Sunday’s Washington Post had an article on the divergent amounts spent on the elderly versus children. This was the theme of Sam Preston’s 1984 PAA Presidential address:

Feds spend $7 on elderly for every $1 on kids
Ezra Klein | Washington Post (WonkBlog)
February 15, 2013
The bulk of this article is based on a report from the Urban Institute.

Kids’ Share 2012: Report on Federal Expenditures on Children Through 2011
Julia Isaacs, et.al. | The Urban Institute

Children and the Elderly: Divergent Paths for America’s Dependents
Sam Preston | Demography
November 1984

Women as Academic Authors 1665-2010

Women as Academic Authors, 1665-2010
Special report from the Chronicle of Higher Education

Women’s presence in higher education has increased, but as authors of scholarly papers—keys to career success—their publishing patterns differ from those of men. Explore nearly 1,800 fields and subfields, across four centuries, to see which areas have the most female authors and which have the fewest, in this exclusive Chronicle report. See how overall percentages differ from the important first-author position and—in two major bioscience fields—from the prestigious last-author position.