Archive for the 'Group Disparities' Category

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Robert Putnam On Growing Up Poor

An article in Wonkblog explores Robert Putnam’s new book Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis and the influence he has had on politicians as diverse as President Obama and congressman Paul Ryan.

From the article:

For the past three years, Putnam has been nursing an outlandish ambition. He wants inequality of opportunity for kids to be the central issue in the 2016 presidential election. Not how big government should be or what the “fair share” is for the wealthy, but what’s happening to children boxed out of the American dream.

His manifesto, “ Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis” will be published Tuesday. It places brain science, sociology and census data alongside stories of children growing up on both sides of the divide. Many of the findings draw on the work of other researchers who have long studied families, education or neuroscience. But Putnam has gathered up these strands under a single thesis: that instead of talking about inequality of wealth or income among adults, we ought to focus on inequalities in all of the ways children accumulate — or never touch — opportunity.

Another take on gentrification

Gentrification in America Report
Mike Maciag | Governing
February 2015
This resource is city-specific and provides both counts and maps of gentrified census tracts for the 50 largest cities. To be eligible for gentrification a census tract’s median household income and median home value were both in the bottom 40th percentile of all tracts within a metro area at the beginning of the decade. The gentrified tracts recorded increases in the top third percentile for both measures when compared to all others in a metro area.

Methodology

And more broadly, this resource has a special issue on gentrification:

The G-Word: A Special Series on Gentrification
The titles in this series are:
Do Cities Need Kids?
The Neighborhood Has Gentrified, But Where’s the Grocery Store?
Just Green Enough
Gentrification’s Not So Black and White After All
The Downsides of a Neighborhood ‘Turnaround
Some Cities Are Spurring the End of Sprawl
Keeping Cities from Becoming “Child-Free Zones”
From Vacant to Vibrant: Cincinnati’s Urban Transformation
Can Cities Change the Face of Biking?

Geography of Class, Education, and Income in the United States

ArcGIS has three interactive maps showing “the current occupational class, income and educational landscape across the United States. These maps allow the user to explore the various socio-economic divides that exist in our cities and towns at the census tract level.”

Lynchings in America

lynchings_map

[click here for link to NYT graphic]

The Equal Justice Initiative has documented 4,000 lynchings in the South between 1870 and 1950. This resource is potentially useful for examining out-migration of blacks, particularly men, from the South during this era. It could also be useful for explaining current race-based inequalities, including incarceration.

Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror
Summary Report | Equal Justice Initiative
February 2015

Supplement: Lynchings by County [pdf only]

Note that the graphic by the New York Times has a time-dimension in it. I am awaiting the full report from the Equal Justice Initiative to see what additional detail is available in it.

Press Coverage [scroll down]

Effects of Economically Mixed Neighborhoods

Emily Badger of Wonkblog writes about the surprisingly negative effects on boys growing up with wealthy neighbors. The research draws on a longitudinal study of low-income boy in the UK.

Read the article at Wonkblog here. And the abstract and full article from The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry is here.

Persistence of Neighborhood Poverty

By: Emily Badger
Via: Washington Post Wonkblog

Despite their ubiquity in the media, gentrifying neighborhoods that evolve over time from low-income to well-off are quite rare. It is far, far more common that once-poor neighborhoods stay that way over time — or, worse, that they grow poorer.

The article is based on the report “Lost in Place” (PDF) by Joe Cortright and Dillon Mahmoudi for City Observatory

See also Marketplace’s series, York & Fig, on neighborhood gentrification.

White Segregation Decreases As Black Segregation Remains Common

By Dan Keating
Source: Wonkblog

Over the past 20 years, whites and blacks have experienced opposite trends in segregation. Asians, Hispanics and blacks are moving into historically white neighborhoods. Vastly fewer whites live surrounded by just other white people. Whites look around and see multi-ethnic neighbors. They perceive expanded opportunity and integration because that is what they see. And they think everyone else is experiencing the same things.

But a Washington Post analysis of Census data shows that the experience in historically African American neighborhoods of major cities has been far different, as they have remained heavily isolated. Whites, Asians and Hispanics are not moving into those neighborhoods, and blacks who remain there experience persistent segregation.

Read the full story

Getting A More Accurate Count Of Arab Americans

The PSC Infoblog has reported on this earlier here, but this is still of interest.

The U.S. Census Is Trying To Get A More Accurate Count Of Arab Americans
Ben Casselman | fivethirtyeight.com Blog
November 24, 2014

Note that this article mentions that the Census Bureau did a special tabulation for Homeland Security to provide counts of Arab populations by geography (place and zip code).

Some Arabs have expressed reluctance to identify themselves on a government form, especially after the Census Bureau shared detailed data on the Arab-American population with the Department of Homeland Security in the early 2000s

These “detailed tabulations” referenced above, were public use tables from American FactFinder. Here’s the original FOIA request from the Electronic Privacy Information Center:

FOIA request: Department of Homeland Security Obtained Data on Arab Americans From Census Bureau [Source: EPIC]

Here is the example for Places drawn from DP-2. Here’s the example for Zip Codes drawn from (Tables PCT16 and PCT17).

Measuring Race in the Census: Its Fluid

Researchers at the Census Bureau and the Minnesota Population Center matched census responses across the 2000 and 2010 Census and examined changes in the Race/Hispanic origin responses. They found that the biggest change was Hispanics changing their “Other Race” choice in 2000 to “White” in 2010. The groups least likely to change responses were those who identified themselves as non-Hispanic white, black or Asian in 2000.

America’s Churning Races: Race and Ethnic Response Changes between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census
Center for Administrative Records Research and Applications & Minnesota Population Center
CARRA Working Paper #2014-09
August 8, 2014

This paper is nicely summarized here – based on the PAA version:

Millions of Americans changed their racial or ethnic identity from one census to the next
D’Vera Cohn | Pew Research Center
May 5, 2014

As a reminder, the Census Bureau has spent the better part of the past year, looking to change how it collects data on race and ethnicity.

U.S. Census looking at big changes in how it asks about race and ethnicity
D’Vera Cohn | Pew
March 14, 2014

2010 Census Race and Hispanic Origin Alternative Questionnaire Experiment[website]
2010 Census Race and Hispanic Origin Alternative Questionnaire Experiment[report]

Expansion of Free Lunch Could Have a Negative Effect on Research Data

By: Ben Wieder
Source: FiveThirtyEight

A new federal initiative that could provide millions of students with a free lunch might have an unexpected cost for researchers and state educational agencies.

“It’s obviously good for kids, but from a pure data perspective it provides some weaknesses,” said Brandon LeBeau, an assistant professor at the University of Iowa’s College of Education who has studied the use of free lunch eligibility in education research.

Read the full story