Archive for the 'Regional Studies' Category

Sex Selection: When Technology and Tradition Collide

When Technology and Tradition Collide: From Gender Bias to Sex Selection
Kate Gilles and Charlotte Feldman-Jacobs | Population Reference Bureau
September 2012

Bullet points from this policy brief are:

Normal sex ratios at birth range from 102 to 107 male babies born for every 100 female babies born

1.5 millions girls around the world are missing at birth every year.

In at least nine countries, the sex ratio at birth of boy babies to girl babies is at 110 or higher.

Most Muslims Want Democracy, Personal Freedoms, and Islam in Political Life

Source: Pew Research Center, Global Attitudes Project

From overview:

More than a year after the first stirrings of the Arab Spring, there continues to be a strong desire for democracy in Arab and other predominantly Muslim nations. Solid majorities in Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Tunisia and Jordan believe democracy is the best form of government, as do a plurality of Pakistanis.

Indeed, these publics do not just support the general notion of democracy – they also embrace specific features of a democratic system, such as competitive elections and free speech.

A substantial number in key Muslim countries want a large role for Islam in political life. However, there are significant differences over the degree to which the legal system should be based on Islam.

Publication website
Complete Report (PDF)
Topline Questionnaire (PDF)

African Statistical Yearbook, 2012

Source: African Development Bank

From the forward:

The African Statistical Yearbook (ASYB) 2012 is the fourth edition jointly produced by the African Development Bank (AfDB), the African Union Commission (AUC), and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). It is a result of the fruitful collaboration that exists among the three pan-African organizations within the field of statistics. This synergistic collaboration has two principal benefits: (1) it minimizes the risk of inconsistent information being produced by the three organizations, and (2) it reduces the reporting burden on member states, who might otherwise be obliged to submit data separately to each institution.

As in the previous three editions, this 2012 Yearbook presents a time series showing the performance of African countries for various economic and social indicators over the period 2003–2011. The exception is for the mining sector, where the timeframe is 2001–2009, owing to the inherent lag in compiling data for the relevant indicators.

Full text (PDF)

Eurostat Yearbook, 2011

Source: Eurostat

Publication details:

Europe in figures – Eurostat yearbook 2011 – presents a comprehensive selection of statistical data on Europe. With more than 450 statistical tables, graphs and maps, the yearbook is a definitive collection of statistical information on the European Union. Most data cover the period 1999-2009 for the European Union and its Member States, while some indicators are provided for other countries, such as members of EFTA, candidate countries to the European Union, Japan or the United States. The yearbook treats the following areas: economy and finance; population; health; education and training; the labour market; living conditions and social protection; industry, trade and services; agriculture, forestry and fisheries; international trade; transport; the environment; energy; and science and technology. The yearbook may be viewed as a key reference for those wishing to know more about European statistics, providing guidance to the vast range of data freely available from the Eurostat website. The chapters of the Eurostat yearbook are also available as a continuously updated set of articles in Statistics Explained.

Table of contents (PDF)
Full publication (PDF)

Africa’s New Engine

Africa looks to its middle-class consumers to drive prosperity
By: Calestous Juma
Source: Finance & Development, 48(4) — International Monetary Fund

From article:

Following African countries’ independence, the continent has struggled with a seemingly endless array of development challenges, from civil war and political instability to chronic food insecurity, droughts, disease, and pervasive poverty and corruption.

But in recent years, Africa has started to see an economic resurgence. Better economic policies, governance, and use of natural resources, coupled with more business-friendly policies and stronger demand for Africa’s commodities from emerging economies such as Brazil, China, India, and South Africa, have led to consistently high growth levels in Africa, despite the global downturn.

PDF version

The Ibrahim Index of African Governance

Mo Ibrahim Foundation launches the 2010 Ibrahim Index of African Governance

The 2010 Ibrahim Index shows recent gains in many countries in human and economic development but declines in political rights, personal safety and the rule of law.
Press release

The Ibrahim Index:
* Measures the delivery of public goods and services to citizens by government and nonstate actors
* Uses indicators across four main categories: Safety and Rule of Law; Participation and Human Rights; Sustainable Economic Opportunity; and Human Development as proxies for the quality of the processes and outcomes of governance
* Is the most comprehensive collection of qualitative and quantitative data that assess governance in Africa
* Is funded and led by an African institution
* Is a progressive and consultative assessment of governance

Scores & Rankings
Methodology
Full dataset (Excel)

Food Security Assessment, 2010-20

Food Security Assessment, 2010-20
By: Shahla Shapouri, Stacey Rosen, May Peters, Felix Baquedano, and Summer Allen
Source: United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

Food security in 70 developing countries is estimated to have improved between 2009 and 2010, in part due to economic recovery in many of these countries. The number of food-insecure people in the developing countries analyzed by ERS researchers is estimated to decrease about 7.5 percent from 2009 to 882 million in 2010. The number of food-insecure people at the aggregate level will not improve much over the next decade, declining by only 1 percent. While there will be notable improvements in Asia and Latin America, the situation in Sub-Saharan Africa is projected to deteriorate after 2010. Food-insecure people are defined as those consuming less than the nutritional target of 2,100 calories per day per person.

Report summary (PDF)
Entire report (PDF)

Supporting data (Excel spreadsheets):

China’s Population to Peak at 1.4 Billion Around 2026

China’s Population to Peak at 1.4 Billion Around 2026. Census Bureau Projects India to Become Most Populous Country in 2025.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

From Press Release:

China’s population is projected to peak at slightly less than 1.4 billion in 2026, both earlier and at a lower level than previously projected. Meanwhile, India’s population is projected to surpass China’s population in 2025, according to new data being released by the U.S. Census Bureau.

The Census Bureau’s International Data Base includes projections by sex and age to 100-plus for 227 countries and other areas with populations of 5,000 or more and provides information on population size and growth, mortality, fertility and net migration.

These figures come from the population estimates and projections for 227 countries and areas released today through the Census Bureau’s International Data Base. This release includes revisions for 21 countries, including China.

The latest projections indicate that by 2026, the population of China will begin to decline. Population growth in China, the world’s most populous country, is slowing and currently stands at 0.5 percent annually. China surpassed the 1.2 billion population mark in 1994 and reached 1.3 billion in 2006.

According to the latest revisions, India is projected to become the world’s most populous country in 2025. The population growth rate in India currently is about 1.4 percent, nearly three times that of China. The difference in the growth rate between the two countries is explained by fertility. India’s total fertility rate — the number of births a woman is expected to have in her lifetime — is currently estimated at 2.7 and projected to decline slowly, and that is driving population growth in the country.

Emigration, Immigration, and Diaspora Relations in India

Emigration, Immigration, and Diaspora Relations in India
By: Daniel Naujoks
Source: Migration Policy Institute
India has one of the world’s most diverse and complex migration histories. Since the 19th century, ethnic Indians have established communities on every continent as well as on islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific and Indian oceans.
The composition of flows has evolved over time from mainly indentured labor in far-flung colonies to postwar labor for British industry to high-skilled professionals in North America and low-skilled workers in the Middle East. In addition, ethnic Indians in countries like Kenya and Suriname have migrated to other countries, a movement called secondary migration.
This profile provides a broad overview of Indian migration flows and major populations worldwide, both in the past and more recently, as well as their remittances and contributions to India.
Full text

Mapping the Global Muslim Population

Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Muslim Population
By The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life

A comprehensive demographic study of more than 200 countries finds that there are 1.57 billion Muslims of all ages living in the world today, representing 23% of an estimated 2009 world population of 6.8 billion.
While Muslims are found on all five inhabited continents, more than 60% of the global Muslim population is in Asia and about 20% is in the Middle East and North Africa. However, the Middle East-North Africa region has the highest percentage of Muslim-majority countries. Indeed, more than half of the 20 countries and territories in that region have populations that are approximately 95% Muslim or greater.
Full report (PDF)