Monthly Archive for November, 2008

American Time Use Survey

American Time Use Survey — 2007 Results
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) of the U.S. Department of Labor reported today that in 2007:

* Twenty percent of employed persons did some or all of their work at home on days that they worked, and 87 percent did some or all of their work at their workplace.
* On an average day (which includes all 7 days of the week), 83 percent of women and 66 percent of men spent some time doing household activities, such as housework, cooking, lawn care, or financial and other household management.
* Watching TV was the leisure activity that occupied the most time, accounting for about half of leisure time, on average, for both men and women.

This annual release of American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data focuses on the average amount of time per day in 2007 that Americans worked, did house- hold activities, cared for household children, participated in educational activities, and engaged in leisure and sports activities. It also includes measures of the average time per day spent providing childcare–both as a primary (or main) activity and while doing other things–for the combined years 2003-07. Except for childcare, activities done simultaneously with primary activities were not collected.

Juvenile Arrests 2006

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) has published “Juvenile Arrests 2006.” The 12-page bulletin draws on data from the FBI’s “Crime in the United States 2006” to analyze trends in juvenile arrests.
In 2006, U.S. law enforcement agencies made an estimated 2.2 million arrests of persons under age 18. In 1994, 1 of 6 alleged murder offenders known to law enforcement was younger than 18. In 2006, the ratio was 1 in 11.
Full document (PDF)

Americans Believe Religious Values Are ‘Under Attack’

American Attitudes on Religion, Moral Values and Hollywood
Source: Anti-Defamation League
A majority of the American people believes that religious values are “under attack,” and that the people who run the television networks and major movie studios do not share the religious and moral values of most Americans, according to a survey from the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) issued today.
American Attitudes on Religion, Moral Values and Hollywood, a national poll of 1,000 American adults conducted in October 2008 by The Marttila Communications Group, found that 61% of the American people continue to believe that religious values in this country are “under attack.” The poll also found that 59% of Americans agree that “the people who run the TV networks and the major movie studios do not share the religious and moral values of most Americans.”
Press Release; Poll Results (PDF)

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

The Effect of Community-Level Socio-Economic Conditions on Threatening Racial Encounters
Heather Antecol, Deborah Cobb-Clark
Abstract; PDF
Parental Marital Disruption, Family Type, and Transfers to Disabled Elderly Parents
(forthcoming in: Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences)
Liliana E. Pezzin, Robert Pollak, Barbara Steinberg Schone
Abstract; PDF

State of the World Population 2008

State of the World Population 2008: Reaching common ground: culture, gender and human rights
Source: United Nations Population Fund

Development strategies that are sensitive to cultural values can reduce harmful practices against women and promote human rights, including gender equality and women’s empowerment, affirms The State of World Population 2008 report from UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.

Reaching Common Ground: Culture, Gender and Human Rights, launched 12 November 2008, reports that culture is a central component of successful development of poor countries, and must be integrated into development policy and programming.

The report, which coincides with this year’s 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, is based on the concept that the international human rights framework has universal validity. Human rights express values common to all cultures and protect groups as well as individuals. The report endorses culturally sensitive approaches to development and to the promotion of human rights, in general, and women’s rights, in particular.

Full report (PDF)

Cigarette Smoking Among Adults

Cigarette Smoking Among Adults — United States, 2007
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Fewer U.S. adults smoke, but cigarette smoking continues to impose substantial health and financial costs on society, according to new data from CDC.
An estimated 19.8 percent of U.S. adults (43.4 million people), were current smokers in 2007, down from 20.8 percent in 2006, according to a study in CDC?s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, released in advance of the Great American Smokeout. However, based on the current rate of decline, it is unlikely that the national health objective of reducing the prevalence of adult cigarette smoking to 12 percent or lower will be met by 2010.
Smoking causes at least 30 percent of all cancer deaths, including more than 80 percent of lung cancer deaths, and 80 percent of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking is responsible for early cardiovascular disease and death. As a result, about half of all long-term smokers, particularly those who began smoking as teens, die prematurely, many in middle age.

Poll: Concerns About Racial Tensions Decline Sharply In America

American Attitudes on Immigration and Diversity
Source: Anti-Defamation League

There has been a steep decline in concerns about racial tensions in America over the past 15 years, according to a newly released poll from the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). The poll also found a significant majority — 66% — views the growth of America’s minority populations as advantageous to the economy and society.

American Attitudes on Immigration and Diversity, a national poll of 1,000 American adults conducted on October 26, 2008 by the Marttila Communications Group, found that only one-third of the American people believes that racial tensions are increasing in this country. That is a substantial decline from 1992, when three-quarters of the American people expressed the same sentiment.

The poll also found that 66% of Americans view the country’s population growth due to immigration as “an advantage for America.” The poll was released during the League’s 2008 Annual Meeting in Los Angeles.

Press Release; Full Results (PDF)

Effects of Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Poverty on Health and Racial Health Disparities

The Place We Live, the Health We Have: A Multi-Level, Life Course Perspective on the Effects of Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Poverty on Health and Racial Health Disparities
By: D. Phuong Do
Source: RAND
Although our choices and behaviors are inherently expressed at the individual level, they are often influenced and constrained by the larger social and economic context to which we are exposed. Consequently, place can play an influential role in shaping our culture, our lifestyle, our behavior, and our aspirations in life. The author investigates the relationship between metropolitan-level segregation measures and individual-level health outcomes; distinguishes between transient and persistent exposure to individual and neighborhood poverty in estimating individual and neighborhood poverty effects on health and racial health disparities; and estimates the causal impact of neighborhood disadvantage on health. Racial and economic segregation detrimentally affects the health of blacks, even after adjustment of individual socioeconomic factors, but its effects on health for whites are either neutral or beneficial. However, multiple-year measurements of individual-level and neighborhood-level socioeconomic factors lead to substantial reduction in the magnitude of the black/white health gap.
Full Document (PDF)

Household Food Security in the United States, 2007

Household Food Security in the United States, 2007
By: Mark Nord, Margaret Andrews, and Steven Carlson
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

Eighty-nine percent of American households were food secure throughout the entire year in 2007, meaning that they had access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members. The remaining households (11.1 percent) were food insecure at least some time during the year. About one-third of food insecure households (4.1 percent of all U.S. households) had very low food security—meaning that the food intake of one or more adults was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food. Prevalence rates of food insecurity and very low food security were essentially unchanged from those in 2005 and 2006.

Chapters; Full Report (PDF)

American Attitudes on Religion, Moral Values and Hollywood

American Attitudes on Religion, Moral Values and Hollywood
Source: Anti-Defamation League
A majority of the American people believes that religious values are “under attack,” and that the people who run the television networks and major movie studios do not share the religious and moral values of most Americans, according to a survey from the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) issued today.
The survey was conducted by the Marttila Communications Group, a Boston-based public opinion research firm that has conducted numerous national surveys for ADL measuring American attitudes on a wide range of domestic and foreign policy issues. The survey has a margin of error of +/-3.09 percent. For many questions, the survey used the technique of split sampling,” a process in which the 1,000 sample was split into two demographically representative national samples of 500 respondents each. The margin of error for questions answered by 500 respondents is +/- 4.38 percent.
Press Release; Poll (PDF)