Rising Teen Fertility
by Rogelio Saenz and Eugenia Conde, Population Reference Bureau
“The United States continues to have the highest teenage fertility rate in the developed world. Recent data may point to a disturbing reversal of the decline in the teenage fertility rate of the United States that had been apace over the 14-year period from 1991 to 2005.”
Monthly Archive for February, 2009
Rising Teen Fertility
Census Bureau Data Show Characteristics of the U.S. Foreign-Born Population
Source: United States Census Bureau
From the summary:
According to a new analysis of data about the U.S. foreign-born population from the 2007 American Community Survey (ACS), a higher percentage of people born in India have a bachelors degree or higher (74 percent) than people born in any other foreign country. Egypt and Nigeria had rates above 60 percent.
Based on 2007 ACS data, these figures come from new detailed characteristic profiles on the foreign-born population — people who were not U.S. citizens at birth — available by country of birth.
Meanwhile, among the nation’s foreign-born, Somalis and Kenyans living in the United States are the most likely to be newcomers, and Somalis are among the youngest and poorest.
“These new ‘selected population profiles’ highlight the diversity among the many different foreign-born groups in the United States,” said Elizabeth Grieco, chief of the Census Bureau’s Immigration Statistics Staff. “This diversity is due in part to the way the various communities were established, whether it be through labor migration, family reunification or refugee flows.”
The new data reveal the diversity among the 38.1 million foreign-born living in the United States in 2007, not only by where they were born, but also by where they live now.
For example, about 80 percent of the nation’s population born in China are high school graduates. In the New York metropolitan area, about two-thirds of those born in China are high school graduates, while in the metro area of San Jose, Calif., the figure rises to 93 percent.
Health, United States, 2008
From the Center for Disease Control
Health Habits of Adults Aged 18-29 Highlighted in Report on Nation′s Health
Young adults in the United States aged 18-29 face a number of health challenges, including increases in obesity, high injury rates, and lack of insurance coverage compared to older adults, according to the latest report on the nation′s health.
Health, United States: 2008 is the 32nd annual edition of the report prepared by CDC′s National Center for Health Statistics, and includes a compilation of health data from a number of sources within the federal government and in the private sector. The report uses the most current data available at the time of publication.
This year′s edition features a special section on adults aged 18 to 29, a group making many life choices including decisions about education, marriage, childbearing, and health behaviors such as tobacco and alcohol use, which will affect both their future economic and health status.
Highlights of the report:
* Obesity rates have tripled among young adults in the past three decades, from 8 percent in 1971-1974 to 24 percent in 2005-2006.
* In 2006, 29 percent of young men were current cigarette smokers, compared to 21 percent of young adult women. Between 1997 and 2006, the percentage of women 18–29 years of age who currently smoked cigarettes declined nearly 20 percent. Current smoking did not decline significantly among young men.
* In 2005, unintentional injuries or accidents, homicide, and suicide accounted for 70 percent of deaths among young adults 18–29 years of age. Three-quarters of the 47,000 deaths in this age group occurred among young men. Young adults also have the highest rate of injury-related emergency department visits of all age groups.
* In 1999–2004, almost 9 percent of adults aged 20–29 reported having major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, or panic disorder in the past 12 months.
* In 2006, adults aged 20–24 were more likely to be uninsured (34 percent) than those aged 18–19 (21 percent) and 25–29 (29 percent).
* In 2004–2006, 17 percent of adults aged 18–29 reported needing but not receiving one or more of the following services in the past year because they could not afford them: medical care, prescription medicines, mental health care, or eyeglasses.
The full report contains 151 data tables in addition to the special feature on young adults. The tables cover the spectrum of health topics, serving as a comprehensive snapshot of the nation′s health.
* In 2006, American men could expect to live 3.6 years longer, and women 1.9 years longer, than they did in 1990. Death rates from heart disease, stroke and cancer have continued to decline in recent years.
* Sixty-five percent of men and 80 percent of women aged 75 and older reported having high blood pressure or were taking high blood pressure medication in 2003–2006, compared to about 36 percent of adults aged 45–54.
* The proportion of the population with high cholesterol levels has been dropping, in large part due to increased use of cholesterol-lowering drugs. In 2003–2006, 16 percent of adults had high cholesterol. Women aged 55 and over were much more likely to have high cholesterol than their male counterparts.
* Approximately 25 percent of adults aged 60 and over had diabetes in 2003-2006.
* Obesity rates do not appear to be increasing as rapidly as they did in past decades, but remain high, with over a third of adults age 20 and over considered to be obese in 2005–2006.
Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice Annual Report 2008
Source: Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice
The Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice (FACJJ) commenced in 2004 and was charged with the responsibility of annually providing advice to the President and the Congress regarding State perspectives on legislation pertaining to juvenile justice and delinquency prevention and advice on the operation of the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). The membership FACJJ is composed of one representative from each State and territory and the District of Columbia.
On behalf of FACJJ, I am pleased to present the 2008 Annual Report, which addresses major issues currently facing our Nation’s juvenile justice system. Paramount among its concerns, FACJJ strong urges the passage of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2008.
Public Policies and Women’s Employment after Childbearing
Wen-Jui Han, Christopher Ruhm, Jane Waldfogel, Elizabeth Washbrook
The Impact of Children’s Public Health Insurance Expansions on Educational Outcomes
Phillip B. Levine, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
“Momma’s Got the Pill”: How Anthony Comstock and Griswold v. Connecticut Shaped U.S. Childbearing
Martha J. Bailey
Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems
Alan J. Auerbach, Ronald Lee
Immigration and Inequality
Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems
Alan J. Auerbach, Ronald Lee
The Economics and Psychology of Inequality and Human Development
Flavio Cunha, James J. Heckman
Income and Health Spending: Evidence from Oil Price Shocks
Daron Acemoglu, Amy Finkelstein, Matthew J. Notowidigdo
Introduction to Stata: Feb 16 – 27, M/W/F mornings.
Intermediate Topics in SPSS: Data Management and Macros: Feb 17 and 19, T/TH mornings.
Using ArcGIS: Mar 3 and 5, T/TH 2 full days.
Introduction to NVivo: Mar 4, W all day.
Health Measurement: Mar 6, F all day.
Intermediate SAS: Mar 9, 11, 13, M/W/F mornings.
Intermediate Topics in SPSS: Advanced Statistical Models: Mar 10 and 12, T/TH mornings.
Randomized Controlled Trials: Mar 23, M all day.
Introduction to SPSS: Mar 24 – 27, T/W/TH/F afternoons.
Determining Sufficient Sample Size: Apr 3, F all day.
Multivariate Techniques – Logistic Regression and Related Techniques. Apr 28, T all day.
Multivariate Techniques – Data Reduction. Apr 29, W all day.
Applied Structural Equation Modeling: May 4 – 6, M/T/W all day.
Applied Survival Analysis. May 7 and 8, TH/F 2 full days.
Introduction to Proc Mixed: May 11 and 12, M/W 2 full days.
Applications of Hierarchical Linear Models: May 18, 19, 20, M/T/W 3 full days.
Text Mining with Common Digital Documents: May 21, TH all day.
Comparative Studies: Matching , Adjustment, and Propensity Scores: May 27, W all day.
Meta-Analysis: May 28, TH all day.
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The Third Edition of John W. Creswell’s best-selling Research Design enables readers to compare three approaches to research – qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods – in a single research methods text. The book examines these methodologies side by side within the process of research, from the beginning steps of philosophical assumptions to the writing and presenting of research.
Structural Equation Modeling: Foundations and Extensions
By: David Kaplan
Using detailed, empirical examples, Structural Equation Modeling, Second Edition, presents a thorough and sophisticated treatment of the foundations of structural equation modeling (SEM). It also demonstrates how SEM can provide a unique lens on the problems social and behavioral scientists face.
Thoroughly revised to address recent developments, this new edition includes:
• The foundations of SEM, including path analysis and factor analysis.
• Traditional SEM for continuous latent variables, including latent growth curve modeling for continuous growth factors, and issues in testing assumptions of SEM.
• SEM for categorical latent variables, including latent class analysis, Markov models (latent and mixed latent), and growth mixture modeling.
• Philosophical issues in the practice of SEM, including the problem of causal inference.
A Mathematical Primer for Social Statistics
By: John Fox
A Mathematical Primer for Social Statistics: Beyond the introductory level, learning and effectively using statistical methods in the social sciences requires some knowledge of mathematics. It is, however, surprising how far one can go with a relatively modest mathematical background. The proposed monograph aims to provide that background, introducing the areas of mathematics that are most centrally important to applied social statistics: matrices, linear algebra, and vector geometry; basic differential and integral calculus, including multivariable and matrix calculus, and the application of calculus to optimization problems; and probability and estimation, including the basics of probability theory, discrete and continuous random variables, commonly encountered statistical distributions, principles of estimation, the method of maximum likelihood and the basics of Bayesian inference.
Event History Analysis with Stata
By: Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Gtz Rohwer, and Katrin Golsch
Event History Analysis With Stata provides an introduction to event history modeling techniques using Stata (version 9), a widely used statistical program that provides tools for data analysis. The book emphasizes the usefulness of event history models for causal analysis in the social sciences and the application of continuous-time models.
The authors illustrate the entire research path required in the application of event-history analysis, from the initial problems of recording event-oriented data, to data organization, to applications using the software, to the interpretation of results. The book also demonstrates, through example, how to implement hypotheses tests and how to choose the right model. The strengths and limitations of various techniques are emphasized in each example, along with an introduction to the model, details on how to input data, and the related Stata commands. Each application is accompanied by a brief explanation of the underlying statistical concept.
Readers are offered the unique opportunity to easily run and modify all of the book’s application examples on a computer, by visiting the author’s Web site at http://www.uni-bamberg.de/sowi/soziologie-i/eha/. Examples include survival rates of patients in medical studies; unemployment periods in economic studies; and the time it takes a criminal to break the law after his release in a criminological study.
Edited by: Alan Booth, Ann C. Crouter, Suzanne M. Bianchi, and Judith A. Seltzer
Dramatic changes in the American family have transformed the way we care for its oldest and youngest members. Nuclear families have become smaller as childbearing has declined, but extended families have become larger as life expectancy grows. Divorce, extramarital childbearing, cohabitation, and remarriage, have increased our number of kin but often complicate relationships and diffuse responsibility for care. Further, women s increasing participation in the workforce has meant that previous generations must reevaluate their assumptions about caregivers. In Intergenerational Caregiving, an interdisciplinary group of scholars considers our changing family relationships and their effect on social policies. Caregiving and its effects on families relationships and resources are examined from economic, sociological, anthropological and psychological perspectives, and chapters on both elders and children with disabilities are included.
Family in the Middle East: Ideational change in Egypt, Iran, and Tunisia
By: Kathryn M. Yount and Hoda Rashad
Examines, in comparative perspective, the different ideals about family and society and how they have impacted on real family life across a number of countries in the Middle East.
Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium
By: Douglas S. Massey, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, and Ali Kouaouci
The twentieth century has seen immense worldwide shifts in population. Whether it is Europe to North America, the Carribean to the United Kingdom, or East Asia to Australia, migration is one of the major factors that influences the global political and economic situation. By applying systematic theoretical frameworks to detailed empirical data, Worlds in Motion provides a unique overview of not only where migration occurs, and how it works, but crucially details the major factors that influence international population movement.
Coverage Measurement in the 2010 Census
By: Robert M. Bell, Michael L. Cohen and National Research Council Committee on National Statistics
The census coverage measurement programs have historically addressed three primary objectives: to inform users about the quality of the census counts; to help identify sources of error to improve census taking, and to provide alternative counts based on information from the coverage measurement program. In planning the 1990 and 2000 censuses, the main objective was to produce alternative counts based on the measurement of net coverage error. For the 2010 census coverage measurement program, the Census Bureau will deemphasize that goal, and is instead planning to focus on the second goal of improving census processes. This book, which details the findings of the National Research Council’s Panel on Coverage Evaluation and Correlation Bias, strongly supports the Census Bureau’s change in goal. However, the panel finds that the current plans for data collection, data analysis, and data products are still too oriented towards measurement of net coverage error to fully exploit this new focus. Although the Census Bureau has taken several important steps to revise data collection and analysis procedures and data products, this book recommends further steps to enhance the value of coverage measurement for the improvement of future census processes.
How to balance work and family issues has become a major issue for women across the country in all income classes, but especially so for single mothers who were formerly on welfare. This book, tapping into the quantitative and qualitative evidence gathered in the Women’s Employment Study (WES), offers insights into the lives of women in an urban Michigan county who left welfare for work and the role their family decisions play in their labor market decisions.
Intraindividual Processes (Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology)
Edited by: Abraham Tesser and Norbert Schwarz
This state of the art overview of intraindividual processes covers social cognition, attitudes, and social motivation. It will be useful for students with some knowledge of social psychology who want an overview and for researchers as an authoritative definition of the field that also indicates likely future trends.
The handbook includes contributions by academics and researchers from around the world to ensure a truly international perspective. After outlining a set of integrative perspectives: evolutionary and cultural, developmental, and methodological, it goes on to provide an in-depth treatment of current research on social cognition and social motivation. The handbook concludes with chapters devoted to research on applying cognitive and motivational principles. Fully referenced chapters and bibliographies allow easy access to further study.