Monthly Archive for October, 2009

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Latinos and Education: Explaining the Attainment Gap

Latinos and Education: Explaining the Attainment Gap
By: Mark Hugo Lopez
Source: Pew Hispanic Center
Nearly nine-in-ten (89%) Latino young adults say that a college education is important for success in life, yet only about half that number (48%) say that they themselves plan to get a college degree, according to a new national survey of Latinos by the Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center.
Full Report (PDF)

Emigration, Immigration, and Diaspora Relations in India

Emigration, Immigration, and Diaspora Relations in India
By: Daniel Naujoks
Source: Migration Policy Institute
India has one of the world’s most diverse and complex migration histories. Since the 19th century, ethnic Indians have established communities on every continent as well as on islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific and Indian oceans.
The composition of flows has evolved over time from mainly indentured labor in far-flung colonies to postwar labor for British industry to high-skilled professionals in North America and low-skilled workers in the Middle East. In addition, ethnic Indians in countries like Kenya and Suriname have migrated to other countries, a movement called secondary migration.
This profile provides a broad overview of Indian migration flows and major populations worldwide, both in the past and more recently, as well as their remittances and contributions to India.
Full text

Measuring Immigrant Assimilation in the United States

Measuring Immigrant Assimilation in the United States
By: Jacob L. Vidgor
Source: Manhattan Institute for Policy Research

From the Executive Summary:

The year 2007 marked an economic turning point in the United States. According to the National Bureau of Economic Research, the nation’s economic output peaked late in the year and then began to contract. This development affected immigration in two important ways: immigrants began arriving in fewer numbers than they have since the 1960s; and those immigrants who not only arrived but stayed fell further behind the native-born population economically. Economic assimilation declined even among immigrants who arrived more than a decade ago, indicating that differences between that cohort and the native-born population widened.

This report, the second in an ongoing series, takes advantage of newly released U.S. Census Bureau data from 2007 to measure changes in an index describing the state of economic, civic, and cultural assimilation of immigrants to the United States. It also explores in detail two of the factors used to compute the index: immigrants’ English-language ability and naturalization rates, both of which have been affected by the reduced inflow and increased outflow of recent immigrants. Because legal adult immigrants who have been here less than five years cannot become citizens and are unlikely to have mastered English in so short a period, the economic downturn is having an effect on all three assimilation indexes: economic, of course; but also cultural assimilation, of which English skills are an important component; and civic assimilation, of which citizenship is an important component.

Full report (PDF)

Immigrants & Health Care

Immigrants and Health Care Reform: What’s Really at Stake?
By: Randy Capps, Marc R. Rosenblum, and Michael Fix
Source: Migration Policy Institute
In a new report, Immigrants and Health Care Reform: What’s Really at Stake?, MPI’s National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy offers the first-ever estimates of the size of uninsured immigrant populations in major immigrant-destination states, the number of immigrant workers covered by employer-provided plans and the share of immigrants employed by small firms likely to be exempted from employer coverage mandates. The report, based on MPI’s analysis of Census Bureau data, also examines health coverage for immigrants by legal status, age and poverty levels.
Of the estimated 12 million lawful permanent residents in the United States, 4.2 million are uninsured and more than 1 million would be excluded from Medicaid coverage or insurance subsidies if Congress does not remove the five-year waiting period for eligibility. Thirty-eight percent of legal immigrants work at small firms of 25 workers or less, which are likely to be exempted from employer mandates. Just 32 percent of legal immigrant workers at these small firms have insurance compared with 71 percent for U.S.-born workers.
Full report (PDF)

Mapping the Global Muslim Population

Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Muslim Population
By The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life

A comprehensive demographic study of more than 200 countries finds that there are 1.57 billion Muslims of all ages living in the world today, representing 23% of an estimated 2009 world population of 6.8 billion.
While Muslims are found on all five inhabited continents, more than 60% of the global Muslim population is in Asia and about 20% is in the Middle East and North Africa. However, the Middle East-North Africa region has the highest percentage of Muslim-majority countries. Indeed, more than half of the 20 countries and territories in that region have populations that are approximately 95% Muslim or greater.
Full report (PDF)

Do Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws Affect Criminal Behavior?

Do Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws Affect Criminal Behavior?
By: J.J. Prescott (with Jonah E. Rockoff)
Population Studies Center Brown Bag Seminar, October 12, 2009

In recent decades, sex offenders have been the targets of some of the most far-reaching and novel crime legislation in the U.S. Two key innovations have been registration and notification laws which, respectively, require that convicted sex offenders provide valid contact information to law enforcement authorities, and that information on sex offenders be made public. Using detailed information on the timing and scope of changes in state law, we study how registration and notification affect the frequency of sex offenses and the incidence of offenses across victims, and we check for any change in police response to reported crimes. We find evidence that registration reduces the frequency of sex offenses by providing law enforcement with information on local sex offenders. As we predict from a simple model of criminal behavior, this decrease in crime is concentrated among “local” victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances, neighbors), while there is little evidence of a decrease in crimes against strangers. We also find evidence that community notification deters crime, but in a way unanticipated by legislators. Our results suggest that community notification deters first-time sex offenders, but may increase recidivism by registered offenders by increasing the relative attractiveness of criminal behavior. This finding is consistent with work by criminologists showing that notification may contribute to recidivism by imposing social and financial costs on registered sex offenders and, as a result, making non-criminal activity relatively less attractive. We regard this latter finding as potentially important, given that the purpose of community notification is the reduction of recidivism.

NBER Working Paper (PDF)

Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia

Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia
By: Tamar Khitarishvili
Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, Monetary Policy and Financial Structure Working Paper
Abstract:
This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variables. We find that the gender wage gap in Georgia diminished between 2000 and 2004.
Full text (PDF)

The Unequal Burden of Poverty on Time Use

The Unequal Burden of Poverty on Time Use
By: Burca Kizilirmak and Emel Memis
Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, Gender Equality and the Economy Working Paper

Abstract:
This study uses the first time-use survey carried out in South Africa (2000) to examine women’s and men’s time use, with a focus on the impacts of income poverty. We empirically explore the determinants of time spent on different paid and unpaid work activities, including a variety of household and individual characteristics, using bivariate and multivariate Tobit estimations. Our results show asymmetric impacts of income poverty on women’s and men’s time use. Time-use patterns of South African women and men reveal the unequal burden of income poverty among household members. While being poor increases the amount of time women spend on unpaid work, we do not see any significant impact on men’s unpaid work time. For example, women in poor households spend more time than men collecting water and fuel, as well as maintaining their homes.

Full text (PDF)

The Hispanic Origin Population in the United States: 2007 and 2008

The Hispanic Origin Population in the United States: 2007 and 2008
Source: U.S. Census
National-level tabulations from the Current Population Survey on this population group are shown by a wide range of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. They include information on the generational distribution of the Hispanic population, as well as of specific groups, such as Mexican, Puerto Rican and Cuban. There are also tabulations on educational attainment, nativity and citizenship status, year of entry of the foreign-born, household type, labor force and employment status, occupation, earnings and poverty, housing tenure, mobility and health insurance status.
Detailed Tables: 2007 and 2008

The Harried Life of the Working Mother

The Harried Life of the Working Mother
By: Kim Parker, Pew Research Center
Women now make up almost half of the U.S. labor force, up from 38% in 1970. This nearly forty-year trend has been fueled by a broad public consensus about the changing role of women in society. A solid majority of Americans (75%) reject the idea that women should return to their traditional roles in society, and most believe that both husband and wife should contribute to the family income.
Full text (HTML)