Monthly Archive for December, 2010

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New Working Papers from the NBER

The Benefits of Breastfeeding Across the Early Years of Childhood
by Clive R. Belfield, Inas Rashad Kelly
Abstract; PDF

Measuring the Effects of Segregation in the Presence of Social Spillovers: A Nonparametric Approach
by Bryan S. Graham, Guido W. Imbens, Geert Ridder
Abstract; PDF

The Growth in Social Security Benefits Among the Retirement Age Population from Increases in the Cap on Covered Earnings
by Alan L. Gustman, Thomas Steinmeier, Nahid Tabatabai
Abstract; PDF

Policy Effects in Hyperbolic vs. Exponential Models of Consumption and Retirement
by Alan L. Gustman, Thomas L. Steinmeier
Abstract; PDF

The State of the Safety Net in the Post-Welfare Reform Era
by Marianne Bitler, Hilary W. Hoynes
Abstract; PDF

Identifying Sibling Influence on Teenage Substance Use
by Joseph G. Altonji, Sarah Cattan, Iain Ware
Abstract; PDF

The Redistributive Effects of Political Reservation for Minorities: Evidence from India
by Aimee Chin, Nishith Prakash
Abstract; PDF

Empirical Models of Consumer Behavior
by Aviv Nevo
Abstract; PDF

How Much Do Educational Outcomes Matter in OECD Countries?
by Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessmann
Abstract; PDF

Terms of Endearment: An Equilibrium Model of Sex and Matching
by Peter Arcidiacono, Andrew W. Beauchamp, Marjorie B. McElroy
Abstract; PDF

Is Poor Fitness Contagious? Evidence from Randomly Assigned Friends
by Scott E. Carrell, Mark Hoekstra, James E. West
Abstract; PDF

Does Menstruation Explain Gender Gaps in Work Absenteeism?
by Jonah E. Rockoff, Mariesa A. Herrmann
Abstract; PDF

Worker Absence and Productivity: Evidence from Teaching
by Mariesa A. Herrmann, Jonah E. Rockoff
Abstract; PDF

Family Change and Time Allocation in American Families

Family Change and Time Allocation in American Families
By: Suzanne M. Bianchi
Source: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation/Focus on Workplace Flexibility

Abstract:
In this paper, I briefly discuss family demographic changes. Then I use the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) and the historical time diary studies in the U.S. to document trends in parents’ time spent in paid work, housework and childcare. I also describe the activities parents forego in order to meet work and family demands. Finally, I discuss time devoted to adult care and help given to adult children, elderly parents, and friends later in the life course.

Full text (PDF)

KID COUNT Data Center Now Provides Child Poverty Rates by Congressional Districts

Children in Poverty Map
The Annie E. Casey Foundation’s KIDS COUNT Data Center has been updated to include poverty data from the 2009 American Community Survey that was released on September 28 by the U.S. Census Bureau. The Data Center for the first time breaks down child poverty rates by congressional district, highlighting those with the highest and lowest percent of children living below the poverty line. To see how all 435 districts ranked, visit the Data Center.

Factors Influencing Rural Residents’ Utilization of Urban Hospitals

Factors Influencing Rural Residents’ Utilization of Urban Hospitals
By: Margaret Jean Hall, Jill Marsteller, and Maria Owings
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Abstract:
Objective—To examine, using nationally representative data, which patient, hospital, and county characteristics influence rural residents’ urban hospitalization.
Methods—Rural residents hospitalized in urban hospitals (crossovers) are compared with those hospitalized in rural hospitals (noncrossovers). National Hospital Discharge Survey data were merged with Area Resource File and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services data to study rural inpatients’ characteristics; hospital descriptors; and county or state socioeconomic and health service variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified covariates of the likelihood of being a crossover.
Findings—About one-third of the rural resident hospitalizations in 2003 were in urban hospitals. Other factors constant, those requiring greater resources had higher odds of crossing over, as did younger inpatients, those transferred from other hospitals, receiving surgery, and with mental diagnoses or congenital anomalies. Males, emergency admissions, and intervertebral disk disorder inpatients had lower odds of crossing over compared with those who were not in these categories. Crossover patients’ hospitals had higher Medicare case mix indices than hospitals used by noncrossovers. Rural inpatients in government hospitals, rather than proprietary or non-profit hospitals, had greater odds of crossing over, as did rural patients from counties with lower population density, fewer hospital beds, more hospitals, more commuters, and lower per capita income compared with those in other categories.
Conclusions—Rural hospitals continue to be an important source of inpatient care, but rural residents travel to urban hospitals in some specific instances.

Full text (PDF)

The Influence of Personal, Family, and School Factors on Early Adolescent Substance Use

The Influence of Personal, Family, and School Factors on Early Adolescent Substance Use
By: Regina A. Shih, Elizabeth D’Amico, Jeremy N. V. Miles, Joan S. Tucker, Annie Jie Zhou
Source: RAND Corporation

This study of middle school students in Southern California found that racial and ethnic variations in substance use among young adolescents are influenced by individual, family and school factors.

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New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

How to Think About Time-Use Data: What Inferences Can We Make About Long- and Short-Run Time Use from Time Diaries?
Harley Frazis, Jay Stewart
Abstract; PDF

Inter-ethnic Marriage and Partner Satisfaction
Mathias Sinning, Shane Worner
Abstract; PDF

Search, Migration, and Urban Land Use: The Case of Transportation Policies
Yves Zenou
Abstract; PDF

Federal Nutrition Programs and Childhood Obesity: Inside the Black Box
Manan Roy, Daniel L. Millimet, Rusty Tchernis
Abstract; PDF

Inter- and Intra-Marriage Premiums Revisited: It’s Probably Who You Are, Not Who You Marry!
Lena Nekby
Abstract; PDF

The Effects of Childhood Health on Adult Health and SES in China
James P. Smith, Yan Shen, John Strauss, Yang Zhe, Yaohui Zhao
Abstract; PDF

Do Parents’ Social Skills Influence Their Children’s Sociability?
Tsunao Okumura, Emiko Usui
Abstract; PDF

Child Ability and Household Human Capital Investment Decisions in Burkina Faso
Richard Akresh, Emilie Bagby, Damien de Walque, Harounan Kazianga
Abstract; PDF

Empirical Methods in the Economics of International Immigration
Fernando A. Lozano, Michael D. Steinberger
Abstract; PDF

Slavery, Education, and Inequality
Graziella Bertocchi, Arcangelo Dimico
Abstract; PDF

Income Uncertainty and Household Savings in China
Marcos Chamon, Kai Liu, Eswar Prasad
Abstract; PDF

The Minimum Wage and Latino Workers
Pia M. Orrenius, Madeline Zavodny
Abstract; PDF

Unions, Dynamism, and Economic Performance
(forthcoming in: Research Handbook on the Economics of Labor and Employment Law)
Barry T. Hirsch
Abstract; PDF

Racial Discrimination and Household Chores
Shoshana Grossbard, José Ignacio Giménez, José Alberto Molina
Abstract; PDF

Urban Infrastructure and Economic Development: Experimental Evidence from Street Pavement
Marco Gonzalez-Navarro, Climent Quintana-Domeque
Abstract; PDF

Female Labour Supply and Spousal Education
Kerry L. Papps
Abstract; PDF

Accounting for Labor Demand Effects in Structural Labor Supply Models
Andreas Peichl, Sebastian Siegloch
Abstract; PDF