Monthly Archive for February, 2011

New Working Papers from the NBER

Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training
by Dhaval M. Dave, Nancy E. Reichman, Hope Corman, Dhiman Das
Abstract; PDF

Long-run Impacts of School Desegregation & School Quality on Adult Attainments
by Rucker C. Johnson
Abstract; PDF

Race and Home Ownership from the Civil War to the Present
by William J. Collins, Robert A. Margo
Abstract; PDF

International Happiness
by David G. Blanchflower, Andrew J. Oswald
Abstract; PDF

The War at Home: Effects of Vietnam-Era Military Service on Post-War Household Stability
by Dalton Conley, Jennifer Heerwig
Abstract; PDF

Is Being in School Better? The Impact of School on Children’s BMI When Starting Age is Endogenous
by Patricia M. Anderson, Kristin F. Butcher, Elizabeth U. Cascio, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
Abstract; PDF

White Suburbanization and African-American Home Ownership, 1940-1980
by Leah Platt Boustan, Robert A. Margo
Abstract; PDF

The Design of Performance Pay in Education
By Derek Neal
Abstract; PDF

The Equal Environments Assumption in the Post-Genomic Age: Using Misclassified Twins to Estimate Bias in Heritability Models
by Dalton Conley, Emily Rauscher
Abstract; PDF

Fertility and the Plough
by Alberto Alesina, Paola Giuliano, Nathan Nunn
Abstract; PDF

Social Security and Retirement around the World: Historical Trends in Mortality and Health, Employment, and Disability Insurance Participation and Reforms – Introduction and Summary
by Kevin S. Milligan, David A. Wise
Abstract; PDF

Non-Production Benefits of Education: Crime, Health, and Good Citizenship
by Lance Lochner
Abstract; PDF

Behavioral Economics Perspectives on Public Sector Pension Plans
by John Beshears, James J. Choi, David Laibson, Brigitte C. Madrian
Abstract; PDF

Why Is an Elite Undergraduate Education Valuable? Evidence from Israel
by Kevin Lang, Erez Siniver
Abstract; PDF

Understanding Booms and Busts in Housing Markets
by Craig Burnside, Martin Eichenbaum, Sergio Rebelo
Abstract; PDF

Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Survey
by Sari Pekkala Kerr, William R. Kerr
Abstract; PDF

Estimating the Returns to Urban Boarding Schools: Evidence from SEED
by Vilsa E. Curto, Roland G. Fryer, Jr.
Abstract; PDF

Marital Sorting and Parental Wealth
by Kerwin Kofi Charles, Erik Hurst, Alexandra Killewald
Abstract; PDF

Consumption and Income Poverty over the Business Cycle
by Bruce D. Meyer, James X. Sullivan
Abstract; PDF

Health Care Spending Growth and the Future of U.S. Tax Rates
by Katherine Baicker, Jonathan S. Skinner
Abstract; PDF

The Fragility of Estimated Effects of Unilateral Divorce Laws on Divorce Rates
by Jin Young Lee, Gary Solon
Abstract; PDF

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

Social-Family Network and Self-Employment: Evidence from Temporary Rural-Urban Migrants in China
Junfu Zhang, Zhong Zhao
Abstract; PDF

Gender-Specific Occupational Segregation, Glass Ceiling Effects, and Earnings in Managerial Positions: Results of a Fixed Effects Model
Anne Busch, Elke Holst
Abstract; PDF

Using Pseudo-Panels to Measure Income Mobility in Latin America
(forthcoming in: Review of Income and Wealth)
Jose Cuesta, Hugo Nopo, Georgina Pizzolitto
Abstract; PDF

Job Search and Job Finding in a Period of Mass Unemployment: Evidence from High-Frequency Longitudinal Data
Alan B. Krueger, Andreas Mueller
Abstract; PDF

The Role of Marriage in the Causal Pathway from Economic Conditions Early in Life to Mortality
Gerard J. van den Berg, Sumedha Gupta
Abstract; PDF

An Essay on Real Wage Index Numbers
John Pencavel
Abstract; PDF

Public Housing and Residential Segregation of Immigrants in France, 1968-1999
Gregory Verdugo
Abstract; PDF

Pill Power: The Prequel
Lena Edlund, Cecilia Machado
Abstract; PDF

Population Growth and Multiple Equilibria: Inferences from a Modified Ramsey Model
Ulla Lehmijoki
Abstract; PDF

Remittances and Gender: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Evidence
Elke Holst, Andrea Schäfer, Mechthild Schrooten
Abstract; PDF

The Consequences of Being Different: Statistical Discrimination and the School-to-Work Transition
Barbara Mueller, Stefan Wolter
Abstract; PDF

Did We Overestimate the Role of Social Preferences? The Case of Self-Selected Student Samples
Armin Falk, Stephan Meier, Christian Zehnder
Abstract; PDF

Aggregation in Large Dynamic Panels
Hashem Pesaran, Alexander Chudik
Abstract; PDF

Relative Concerns of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China
Alpaslan Akay, Olivier Bargain, Klaus F. Zimmermann
Abstract; PDF

Occupational Status and Health Transitions
G. Brant Morefield, David C. Ribar, Christopher J. Ruhm
Abstract; PDF

A Labor Market Approach to the Crisis of Health Care Professionals in Africa
Mabel Andalón, Gary Fields
Abstract; PDF

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

Evolution of the Chinese Rural-Urban Migrant Labor Market from 2002 to 2007
Zhaopeng (Frank) Qu, Zhong Zhao
Abstract; PDF

The Long-Run Effects of Mortality Decline in Developing Countries
Ulla Lehmijoki, Tapio K. Palokangas
Abstract; PDF

The Role of Mothers and Fathers in Providing Skills: Evidence from Parental Deaths
Jérôme Adda, Anders Björklund, Helena Holmlund
Abstract; PDF

The Impact of Placing Adolescent Males into Foster Care on their Education, Income Assistance and Incarcerations
William P. Warburton, Rebecca N. Warburton, Arthur Sweetman, Clyde Hertzman
Abstract; PDF

Turning 18: What a Difference Application of Adult Criminal Law Makes
Horst Entorf
Abstract; PDF

Mother’s Autonomy and Child Welfare: A New Measure and Some New Evidence
Tanika Chakraborty, Prabal K. De
Abstract; PDF

Job Search Requirements for Older Unemployed: Transitions to Employment, Early Retirement and Disability Benefits
Hans Bloemen, Stefan Hochguertel, Marloes Lammers
Abstract; PDF

Consistent Estimation of the Fixed Effects Ordered Logit Model
Gregori Baetschmann, Kevin Staub, Rainer Winkelmann
Abstract; PDF

Efficient and Inefficient Welfare States
Yann Algan, Pierre Cahuc, Marc Sangnier
Abstract; PDF

2010 Trends in Unauthorized Immigrant Population

Unauthorized Immigrant Population: National and State Trends, 2010
By: Jeffrey S. Passel and D’Vera Cohn
Source: Pew Research Center

From Overview:

As of March 2010, 11.2 million unauthorized immigrants were living in the United States, virtually unchanged from a year earlier, according to new estimates from the Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center. This stability in 2010 follows a two-year decline from the peak of 12 million in 2007 to 11.1 million in 2009 that was the first significant reversal in a two-decade pattern of growth.

The number of unauthorized immigrants in the nation’s workforce, 8 million in March 2010, also did not differ from the Pew Hispanic Center estimate for 2009. As with the population total, the number of unauthorized immigrants in the labor force had decreased in 2009, from its peak of 8.4 million in 2007.

Full report (PDF)

India’s 2011 Census to Include Third Gender Option

A First for Census Taking: The Third Sex
By: Carl Haub and O.P. Sharma
Source: Behind the Numbers, Population Reference Bureau

From the beginning, questions on one’s sex on census forms had two choices: male or female. But no more. In its upcoming decennial census, to be conducted in February, India offer the possibility of a third response – “other” (see partial facsimile of the census form below). The innovation has generated quite a bit of publicity in the Indian press. The group most affected by this change to the census form is usually referred to in India as transgenders/eunuchs, or hijras.

Full post

SNAP Participation Rates in 2008

Reaching Those in Need: State Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates in 2008
By: Karen E. Cunnygham and Laura A. Castner
Source: USDA, Food and Nutrition Service

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)—formerly the Food Stamp Program—is a central component of American policy to alleviate hunger and poverty. The program’s main purpose is “to permit low-income households to obtain a more nutritious diet…by increasing their purchasing power” (Food and Nutrition Act of 2008). SNAP is the largest of the domestic food and nutrition assistance programs administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrition Service. During fiscal year 2010, the program served 40 million people in an average month at a total annual cost of almost $65 billion in benefits.

Full report (PDF)

State Population Estimates: April 1, 2010

Preliminary Vintage 2010 Population Estimates and 2010 Census Counts
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Press Release:

The Census Bureau is releasing a preliminary set of April 1, 2010, estimates of total population for the nation, states and Puerto Rico. An Internet table will show the estimates in comparison with official April 1, 2010, Census counts released in December 2010. The estimates are based on the 2000 Census and were prepared using the current estimates methodology without knowledge of 2010 Census results. An additional Internet table will show preliminary estimates of the July 1 populations for each year since the 2000 Census.

Internet address: http://www.census.gov/popest/estimates.html.

Health and Well-Being in the Home

Health and Well-Being in the Home: A Global Analysis of Needs, Expectations, and Priorities for Home Health Care Technology
By: Soeren Mattke, Lisa Klautzer, Tewodaj Mengistu, Jeffrey Garnett, Jianhui Hu, Helen Wu
Source: RAND Corporation

Abstract:

In both industrialized and transitioning countries, population aging and better survivability have led to a rapid increase of the prevalence of chronic disease and disability. As a result, there is growing concern about the financial sustainability of health care systems, which is compounded by capacity constraints and workforce shortages. Advanced home health care solutions promise to mitigate these pressures by shifting care from costly institutional settings to patients’ homes and allowing patients to self-manage their conditions. A global study of the needs, priorities, and expectations of key stakeholders regarding home health care in six countries (China, France, Germany, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States) revealed that, despite their potential, such technologies face a number of barriers to adoption. Restrictive coverage and existing incentives for in-person home care create obstacles, as does limited patient readiness because of insufficient health literacy. Concerns about audience-appropriate product design and support and limited data on effectiveness and efficiency also impede uptake. Realizing the promise of telecare requires a concerted stakeholder effort, including creation of a conducive policy environment, design of convincing products, and development and dissemination of persuasive evidence.

Summary (PDF)
Full document (PDF)

2010 Brown Center Report on American Education

The 2010 Brown Center Report on American Education
By: Tom Loveless
Source: The Brookings Institute

From the introduction:

This edition of the Brown Center Report marks the tenth issue of the series and the final issue of Volume II. The publication began in 2000 with Bill Clinton in the White House and the Bush-Gore presidential campaign building toward its dramatic conclusion. That first report was organized in a three-part structure that all subsequent Brown Center Reports followed. Part I presents the latest results from state, national, or international assessments and alerts readers to important trends in the data. Part II explores an education issue in depth, sometimes by investigating different sources of empirical evidence than previous research, sometimes by posing a conventional question in an unconventional way. Part III analyzes a current or impending question regarding education policy. In all three sections, the studies strive to ask clear questions, gather the best available evidence, and present findings in a nonpartisan, jargon-free manner.

Introduction
Full report (PDF)