Changing Dynamics of Migration in the Americas

On the Other Side of the Fence: Changing Dynamics of Migration in the Americas
By: Jacqueline Mazza and Eleanor Sohnen
Source: Migration Policy Institute

In Latin America and the Caribbean, policymakers are noting labor movements inconceivable as little as 10 years ago: Hondurans and Guatemalans crossing to El Salvador for agriculture and construction work; Bolivians and Paraguayans working in large numbers in Argentina; Mexicans from the state of Chiapas moving to the Yucatan for work, with Guatemalans replacing them at even lower wages to harvest Chiapan crops; Ecuadorians and Colombians having moved in large numbers to Spain.

These shifts demonstrate a growing globalization of Latin American labor markets both within and outside the region. Migration to the United States and Europe appears to have slowed in the wake of the recent global financial crisis, and return migration to the region appears limited.

Full text

Contraceptive Use in the United States

Facts on Contraceptive Use in the United States
Source: Guttmacher Institute

Information on who uses contraception, methods, trends and funding.

Full text
PDF

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

Recent Developments in Intergenerational Mobility
(forthcoming in: Handbook of Labor Economics)
Sandra E. Black, Paul Devereux
Abstract; PDF

Home-Leaving Decisions of Daughters and Sons
(forthcoming: Review of the Economics of the Household, 2010)
Maria Concetta Chiuri, Daniela Del Boca
Abstract; PDF

What Makes a Good Conference? Analysing the Preferences of Labor Economists
Lex Borghans, Margo Romans, Jan Sauermann
Abstract; PDF

Explaining Rising Returns to Education in Urban China in the 1990s
Xuejun Liu, Albert Park, Yaohui Zhao
Abstract; PDF

One Last Puff? Public Smoking Bans and Smoking Behavior
Silke Anger, Michael Kvasnicka, Thomas Siedler
Abstract; PDF

Migration and Urban Poverty and Inequality in China
Albert Park, Dewen Wang
Abstract; PDF

The Dynamics of Women’s Labour Supply in Developing Countries
Sonia R. Bhalotra, Marcela Umana-Aponte
Abstract; PDF

Gender and the Influence of Peer Alcohol Consumption on Adolescent Sexual Activity
Glen R. Waddell
Abstract; PDF

Neighbourhood Child Poverty in Sweden
Björn Gustafsson, Torun Österberg
Abstract; PDF

Wage Effects of Non-Wage Labour Costs
María Cervini Plá, Xavi Ramos, José I. Silva
Abstract; PDF

Racial Harassment, Ethnic Concentration and Economic Conditions
Christian Dustmann, Francesca Fabbri, Ian Preston
Abstract; PDF

The Effect of Family Separation and Reunification on the Educational Success of Immigrant Children in the United States
T. H. Gindling, Sara Z. Poggio
Abstract; PDF

Modeling Employment Dynamics with State Dependence and Unobserved Heterogeneity
Victoria L. Prowse
Abstract; PDF

Behind the Lighthouse Effect
Tito Boeri, Pietro Garibaldi, Marta Ribeiro
Abstract; PDF

Immigrants at New Destinations: How They Fare and Why
Anabela Carneiro, Natércia Fortuna, José Varejão
Abstract; PDF

Economic Characteristics of Households in the United States

Economic Characteristics of Households in the United States: Third Quarter 2008
By: Thomas Palumbo
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

From Introduction:

In the third quarter of 2008, the U.S. economy was in the midst of the recession that began in December 2007, while the labor market continued a decline that started during the second half of 2007. The third quarter of 2008 saw the national unemployment rate rise to 6 percent and the number of unemployed people reach 9.4 million, an increase of 1.2 percentage points and 2 million people over the fourth quarter of 2007 (all figures seasonally adjusted). Over the same 2007–2008 period, employment was down by almost 1 million people and the employment-population ratio dipped from 62.8 percent to 62.1 percent. Throughout 2008, median weekly earnings grew at about the same rate as inflation.

This report provides an overview of some of the key sources of financial support of the nation’s people and households during this time. The data offer a window into the roles of government-sponsored benefit programs and the labor market during the downturn. When placed within a wider context, the data can contribute to a better understanding of how public and market-oriented financial-support mechanisms respond to varying economic circumstances, and how the role of government programs has changed over time.

Apportionment Resources: Formula

The Apportionment Formula
Census Bureau: Congressional Apportionment

“The House of Representatives Apportionment Formula: An Analysis of Proposals
for Change and Their Impact on States”

David Huckabee | Congressional Research Service
August 10, 2001

“Political Calculus”
Barry Cipra | Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics News
June 10, 2001

Apportionment Resources: Projections

Apportionment Projections
“New Population Estimates Show Additional Changes For 2009 Congressional Apportionment, With Many States Sitting Close to the Edge for 2010”
Kimball Brace | Election Data Services

“Mid-Recession Migration in 2010: Apportionment in 2010”
Clarke Benson | Polidata
December 23, 2009

Polidata Census Library – Apportionment
Current Polidata Apportionment Projections followed by Previous Years’ Projections

“A Rollercoaster Decade for Migration”
William Frey | The Brookings Institution
December 28, 2009

“South sees new pull via Census”
John Fritze | USA Today
December 23, 2009

“The New Constituents: How Latino Population Growth Will Shape Congressional Apportionment After the 2010 Census”
America’s Voice Education Fund
November 2009

“Red States Gaining Ground, But Migration Slowing Down”
Nate Silver | FiveThirtyEight.com
December 26, 2009

“New Population Estimates Show Slight Changes for 2008 Congressional Apportionment”
Kimball Brace | Election Data Services
December 22, 2008

“Census & Redistricting: Now is the time to pay attention”
Kimball Brace | Election Data Services

“The Electoral College Moves to the Sunbelt”
William Frey | The Brookings Institution
May 2005

Historical Reapportionment Study
Kimball Brace | Election Data Services
December 29, 1999

Apportionment Resources: Legal

Analysis: AG files long-shot challenge of census
NECN.com
November 21, 2011

Attorney General Buddy Caldwell is trying to persuade the U.S. Supreme Court to overturn census procedures in place for years, which could reshuffle congressional representation around the country. It’s a long-shot at best.

His lawsuit says the 2010 census included counts of illegal immigrants, holders of guest worker visas and people on student visas. The lawsuit claims that approach improperly skews the congressional reapportionment and gives states with large numbers of illegal immigrants additional congressional seats, while taking seats from states with low numbers of illegal immigrants.

“Louisiana’s complaint simply asks the Court to require the federal government to recalculate the 2010 apportionment of U.S. House of Representative seats based on legal residents — just as the Constitution requires,” Caldwell said in a statement.

La. Seeks to Ban Illegal Immigrants from Census count in Suit Filed with Supreme Court
Debra Cassens Weiss | ABAJournal
November 15, 2011
Attorney General Buddy Caldwell needs to take a look at a 2010 Census form. He said the needed information is already in the 2010 census results and a new tally would not be needed. Funny. I don’t recall the 2010 Census including a citizenship/permanent resident question (or legal status) since he mentions ‘illegal foreign nationals.’
November 15, 2011
“The Constitutionality of Excluding Aliens from the Census: Apportionment and Redistricting”
Margaret Mikyung Lee and Erika K. Lunder | Congressional Research Service
January 20, 2010

“Apportionment and the 14th Amendment”
Website
[author(s) unknown; website is good cache of anti-immigrant, anchor baby point of view resources]

Clemons et al v U.S. Department of Commerce, et.al.
September 17, 2009
[Complaint]

“Summary of Supreme Court Cases Relevant to the Census”
Ren Farley | Population Studies Center
June 2009

Imputation, Apportionment, and Statistical Methods in the U.S. Census: Issues Surrounding Utah v. Evans
Patrick J. Cantwell, Howard Hogan and Kathleen M. Styles | Census Bureau
March 7, 2005

U.S. Birth Rate Decline Linked to Recession

U.S. Birth Rate Decline Linked to Recession
By: Gretchen Livingston and D’Vera Cohn
Source: Pew Research Center, Social and Demographic Trends

From Introduction:

Birth rates in the United States began to decline in 2008 after rising to their highest level in two decades, and the decrease appears to be linked to the recession, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of state fertility and economic data.

This analysis is based on data from the 25 states for which final 2008 birth numbers are available. State-level indicators were used because the magnitude and timing of the recent economic decline varies from state to state, thus allowing a more nuanced analysis of links with fertility than is possible at the national level.

Full report (PDF)
Appendix (PDF)

Toward Reduced Poverty Across Generations

Toward Reduced Poverty Across Generations: Early Findings from New York City’s Conditional Cash Transfer Program
By: James Riccio, Nadine Dechausay, David Greenberg, Cynthia Miller, Zawadi Rucks, and Nandita Verma
Source: MDRC

From Overview:

In 2007, New York City’s Center for Economic Opportunity launched Opportunity NYC–Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. CCT programs offer cash assistance to reduce immediate hardship, but condition these transfers on families’ efforts to build up their “human capital,” often by developing the education and skills that may reduce their poverty over the longer term. Family Rewards is the first comprehensive CCT program in a developed country.

Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City’s highest-poverty communities, Family Rewards ties cash rewards to pre-specified activities and outcomes in children’s education, families’ preventive health care, and parents’ employment. The three-year program is being operated by Seedco — a private, nonprofit intermediary organization — in partnership with six community-based organizations. It is being evaluated by MDRC through a randomized control trial involving approximately 4,800 families and 11,000 children, half of whom can receive the cash incentives if they meet the required conditions, and half who have been assigned to a control group that cannot receive the incentives. This report presents initial findings during the program’s early operating period.


Executive Summary (PDF)

Full report (PDF)

The Return of the Multi-Generational Family Household

The Return of the Multi-Generational Family Household
Source: Pew Research Center, Social and Demographic Trends

From Section 1:

The multi-generational American family household is staging a comeback — driven in part by the job losses and home foreclosures of recent years but more so by demographic changes that have been gathering steam for decades.

As of 2008, a record 49 million Americans, or 16.1% of the total U.S. population, lived in a family household that contained at least two adult generations or a grandparent and at least one other generation, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of census data.

Complete report (PDF)