QSEP Research Reports

Population Consequences of Male Selection at Birth When The Sex Probabilities Can Be Altered
by Frank T. Denton and Byron G. Spencer
We explore the implications of male preference stopping rules for a stable population, and more generally the aggregate implications of higher male/female birth ratios. We begin by specifying nine alternative family stopping rules, derive their probability functions, and simulate the long-run effects on population growth rates and age and sex ratios. We then move away from the idea of explicit stopping rules and simulate the population effects of 81 alternative combinations of birth sex ratios and fertility rates under (implicit) preference for male children. The results show how male preference and fertility choices at the individual family level can affect the overall characteristics of a population.
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Changes in Wage Distributions of Wage Earners in Canada: 2000-2005
by Kao-Lee Liaw and Lei Xu
This research attempts to figure out whether the wage distributions of Canadian wage earners have been moving towards or away from the flowing three ideals in the early part of the 21th century. First, there be a pattern of wage increase that is shared by a large majority of wage earners. Second, the historical gender inequality in wage be reduced. Third, there be a decrease in wage inequality for both males and females. We use the long-form records of the 2001 and 2006 population censuses to carry out our investigation. A nice feature of these records is that the values of income variables are not top-coded so that the true averages will not be understated and good insights into the situations of those with extremely high incomes can be obtained. We are disappointed by finding that the Canadian economy mostly drifted away from our three ideals, with the main exception being that for female wage earners the improvement in wage was fortunately shared by a large majority. We believe that an important reason for our disappointing finding is the progressive entrenchment of market fundamentalism in Canada. Incidentally, we have discovered that Statistics Canada did a good job in designing the 2006 census questionnaire so that the annoying choppiness that occurred to the 2000 wage distributions vanished in the 2005 wage distributions.
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Changes to NIH Biosketch

NIH is rolling out a new biosketch format. See details.

Working Papers from NBER

The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana, Alcohol, and Hard Drug Use
by Hefei Wen, Jason M. Hockenberry, Janet R. Cummings #20085
Abstract; PDF

The Long Term Impact of Cash Transfers to Poor Families
by Anna Aizer, Shari Eli, Joseph Ferrie, Adriana Lleras-Muney #20103
Abstract; PDF

Race, Ethnicity, and Discriminatory Zoning
by Allison Shertzer, Tate Twinam, Randall P. Walsh #20108
Abstract; PDF

Asset Pricing with Countercyclical Household Consumption Risk
by George M. Constantinides, Anisha Ghosh #20110
Abstract; PDF

The Effect of Public Insurance Coverage for Childless Adults on Labor Supply
by Laura Dague, Thomas DeLeire, Lindsey Leininger #20111
Abstract; PDF

Effects of Maternal Depression on Family Food Insecurity
by Kelly Noonan, Hope Corman, Nancy E. Reichman #20113
Abstract; PDF

Immigration, Search, and Redistribution: A Quantitative Assessment of Native Welfare
by Michele Battisti, Gabriel Felbermayr, Giovanni Peri, Panu Poutvaara #20131
Abstract; PDF

The Behavioralist as Nutritionist: Leveraging Behavioral Economics To Improve Child Food Choice and Consumption
by John A. List, Anya Savikhin Samek #20132
Abstract; PDF

Can Variation in Subgroups’ Average Treatment Effects Explain Treatment Effect Heterogeneity? Evidence from a Social Experiment
by Marianne P. Bitler, Jonah B. Gelbach, Hilary W. Hoynes #20142
Abstract; PDF

Aggregate Fertility and Household Savings: A General Equilibrium Analysis using Micro Data
by Abhijit Banerjee, Xin Meng, Tommaso Porzio, Nancy Qian #20050
Abstract; PDF

The Distributional Preferences of Americans
by Raymond Fisman, Pamela Jakiela, Shachar Kariv #20145
Abstract; PDF

How Did Distributional Preferences Change During the Great Recession?
by Raymond Fisman, Pamela Jakiela, Shachar Kariv #20146
Abstract; PDF

Impacts of the Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Provision on Health-Related Outcomes of Young Adults
by Silvia Barbaresco, Charles J. Courtemanche, Yanling Qi #20148
Abstract; PDF

Who do Unions Target? Unionization over the Life-Cycle of U.S. Businesses
by Emin M. Dinlersoz, Jeremy Greenwood, Henry R. Hyatt #20151
Abstract; PDF

A Revealed Preference Approach to the Elicitation of Political Attitudes: Experimental Evidence on Anti-Americanism in Pakistan
by Leonardo Bursztyn, Michael J. Callen, Bruno Ferman, Syed Ali Hasanain, Noam Yuchtman #20153
Abstract; PDF

When Does Education Matter? The Protective Effect of Education for Cohorts Graduating in Bad Times
by David M. Cutler, Wei Huang, Adriana Lleras-Muney #20156
Abstract; PDF

Public Health Insurance Expansions and Hospital Technology Adoption
by Seth M. Freedman, Haizhen Lin, Kosali I. Simon #20159
Abstract; PDF

Collusion at the Extensive Margin
by Martin Byford, Joshua Gans #20163
Abstract; PDF

Human Capital Effects of Anti-Poverty Programs: Evidence from a Randomized Housing Voucher Lottery
by Brian Jacob, Max Kapustin, Jens Ludwig #20164
Abstract; PDF

The Career Prospects of Overeducated Americans
by Brian Clark, Clement Joubert, Arnaud Maurel #20167
Abstract; PDF

To Charge or Not to Charge: Evidence from a Health Products Experiment in Uganda
by Greg Fischer, Dean Karlan, Margaret McConnell, Pia Raffler #20170
Abstract; PDF

Culture: Persistence and Evolution
by Francesco Giavazzi, Ivan Petkov, Fabio Schiantarelli #20174
Abstract; PDF

The Effect of Child Health Insurance Access on Schooling: Evidence from Public Insurance Expansions
by Sarah Cohodes, Samuel Kleiner, Michael F. Lovenheim, Daniel Grossman #20178
Abstract; PDF

Social Distance and Quality Ratings in Charity Choice
by Alexander L. Brown, Jonathan Meer, J. Forrest Williams #20182
Abstract; PDF

Quantifying the Lasting Harm to the U.S. Economy from the Financial Crisis
by Robert E. Hall #20183
Abstract; PDF

Trends in Migration to the U.S.

From the Population Reference Bureau:

The number of international migrants more than doubled between 1980 and 2010, from 103 million to 220 million. In 2013, the number of international migrants was 232 million and is projected to double to over 400 million by 2050.

Publication’s webpage
Full Report (PDF)

The Rise of Life Sentences in the US: a Conversation with Nicole Porter of the Sentencing Project

May 23, 2014
4:00pm – 6:00pm
School of Social Work Building – Educational Conference Center, 1840

U-M Crime Control, Poverty and Justice Workgroup, in partnership with the American Friends Service Committee, is hosting a talk with Nicole Porter, Director of State Advocacy with the Sentencing Project. Nicole will discuss life sentences, the aging prison population, and issues of racial justice in the US Criminal Justice Policy. In addition, there will be a panel of former prisoners who have served time on a life sentence in the Michigan Department of Corrections.

SPONSOR: School of Social Work Office of Alumni Relations
WEBSITE: https://ssw.umich.edu/events/list/2014/05/23/46367-the-rise-of-life-sentences-in-the-us-a-conversation-with-nicole-porter-of-the-sentencing-project

The Fastest Growing US Cities Are Mostly In the West

via The Washington Post

Seven of the 15 fastest growing cities in America are in the booming state of Texas, according to the annual ranking released today by the U.S. Census Bureau.

And three of those eight are in the vicinity of Austin, the state’s capital city.

One of those three, San Marcos, population 54,076, holds the distinction of being the fastest-growing city for two consecutive years. Its population increased by 8 percent between July 2012 and July 2013 — the period covered by the survey. It grew 44 percent in the past 15 years.

Full text of the article
Census Bureau Population Estimates

Most segregated schools are now in the Northeast not the South

From an article in the Washington Post:

Sixty years ago this Saturday, the Supreme Court found state laws imposing segregation unconstitutional.

Progress has been made, but the nation has been slipping, according to a new report analyzing government data from UCLA’s Civil Rights Project. And the states where segregation is most prevalent today are not the ones where it reached its boiling point in the 1950s and 1960s.

Washington Post article
Civil Rights Project Report: Executive Summary and Full Report (PDF)

A Tape-Measure for Well-Being

by Tom Barlett
Source: Chronicle of Higher Education

From the article:

Pretty much everyone seems happy. In Australia, 93 percent of the population is either happy or very happy. In China, it’s 85 percent. Jordan: 86 percent. They’re chipper in Colombia at 92. Belarus is below average, at 64, but it still has a solid majority of happy campers. In the United States, 90 percent of us are happy and presumably steering clear of the sour-faced 10-percenters.

Those figures come from the latest round, released in April, of the World Values Survey, which has been tracking the beliefs and feelings of humanity since 1981. How do surveyors determine whether people are happy? They ask them. This is what social scientists usually do when they want to find out such things.

The theory is that you are the best source of information about your own happiness. But is that the case?

Read the full article and watch the video for Pharrell Williams’ “Happy”.

Another rule from NIH: Demographers might get to ignore this one

NIH wants the routine gender bias in basic research to end. This mostly applies to animals used in laboratory research, e.g. mice or cell cultures. An earlier directive from NIH required clinical trials to include women and minorities.

Policy: NIH to balance sex in cell and animal studies
Janine A. Clayton and Francis S. Collins | Nature
May 14, 2014
html | pdf

Labs Are Told to Start Including a Neglected Variable: Females
Roni Rabin | New York Times
May 15, 2014

Related History:
Monitoring Adherence to the NIH Policy on the Inclusion of Women and Minorities in Clinical Research
National Institutes of Health (NIH) | 2013

Research on Health Disparities: Incarceration Matters

High Incarceration Rates among Black Men Enrolled in Clinical Studies may Compromise Ability to Identify Disparities
Emily Wang, et.al. | Health Affairs
May 13, 2014
html | pdf

This is a nice note, which examines the selectivity introduced into studies when participants are lost to a study due to incarceration – primarily black men. The paper discusses a suggested change in the IRB regulations on studying prisoners, which would help address this selectivity issue. The Vox article below discusses the history of IRB rules, given that this would not be common knowledge among a more general reader pool.

Doctors can’t research the health of black men, because they keep getting sent to prison
Dara Lind | Vox
May 13, 2014