NBER Working Papers

The Disability Employment Puzzle: A Field Experiment on Employer Hiring Behavior
by Mason Ameri, Lisa Schur, Meera Adya, Scott Bentley, Patrick McKay, Douglas Kruse #21560
Abstract; PDF

Non-Cognitive Deficits and Young Adult Outcomes: The Long-Run Impacts of a Universal Child Care Program
by Michael Baker, Jonathan Gruber, Kevin Milligan #21571
Abstract; PDF

How Does Household Income Affect Child Personality Traits and Behaviors?
by Randall Akee, Emilia Simeonova, E. Jane Costello, William Copeland, Adrian Angold #21562
Abstract; PDF

TAs Like Me: Racial Interactions between Graduate Teaching Assistants and Undergraduates
by Lester Lusher, Doug Campbell, Scott Carrell #21568
Abstract; PDF

As the Wind Blows: The Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution on Mortality
by Michael L. Anderson #21578
Abstract; PDF

Neophilia Ranking of Scientific Journals
by Mikko Packalen, Jay Bhattacharya #21579
Abstract; PDF

Low-Frequency Econometrics
by Ulrich K. Mueller, Mark W. Watson #21564
Abstract; PDF

Public Universities, Equal Opportunity, and the Legacy of Jim Crow: Evidence from North Carolina
by Charles T. Clotfelter, Helen F. Ladd, Jacob L. Vigdor #21577
Abstract; PDF

Principal Component Analysis of High Frequency Data
by Yacine Ait-Sahalia, Dacheng Xiu #21584
Abstract; PDF

Immigrant Employment and Earnings Growth in Canada and the U.S.: Evidence from Longitudinal Data
by Neeraj Kaushal, Yao Lu, Nicole Denier, Julia Shu-Huah Wang, Stephen J. Trejo #21591
Abstract; PDF

Education Research and Administrative Data
by David N. Figlio, Krzysztof Karbownik, Kjell G. Salvanes #21592
Abstract; PDF

The Cost of Uncertainty about the Timing of Social Security Reform
by Frank N. Caliendo, Aspen Gorry, Sita Slavov #21585
Abstract; PDF

What Can We Learn About the Effects of Food Stamps on Obesity in the Presence of Misreporting?
by Lorenzo Almada, Ian M. McCarthy, Rusty Tchernis #21596
Abstract; PDF

Housing Booms and Busts, Labor Market Opportunities, and College Attendance
by Kerwin Kofi Charles, Erik Hurst, Matthew J. Notowidigdo #21587
Abstract; PDF

Does Education Reduce Teen Fertility? Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Laws
by Philip DeCicca, Harry Krashinsky #21594
Abstract; PDF

Estimation of Multivariate Probit Models via Bivariate Probit
by John Mullahy #21593
Abstract; PDF

A Nonlinear Certainty Equivalent Approximation Method for Dynamic Stochastic Problems
by Yongyang Cai, Kenneth Judd, Jevgenijs Steinbuks #21590
Abstract; PDF

Healthcare Exceptionalism? Performance and Allocation in the U.S. Healthcare Sector
by Amitabh Chandra, Amy Finkelstein, Adam Sacarny, Chad Syverson #21603
Abstract; PDF

The Gift of Time? School Starting Age and Mental Health
by Thomas S. Dee, Hans Henrik Sievertsen #21610
Abstract; PDF

Discrimination and Worker Evaluation
by Costas Cavounidis, Kevin Lang #21612
Abstract; PDF

Using Behavioral Insights to Increase Parental Engagement: The Parents and Children Together (PACT) Intervention
by Susan E. Mayer, Ariel Kalil, Philip Oreopoulos, Sebastian Gallegos #21602
Abstract; PDF

The Relationship between Health and Schooling: What’s New?
by Michael Grossman #21609
Abstract; PDF

Health Effects of Economic Crises
by Christopher J. Ruhm #21604
Abstract; PDF

Does Eliminating the Earnings Test Increase the Incidence of Low Income Among Older Women?
by Theodore Figinski, David Neumark #21601
Abstract; PDF

Diabetes and Diet: Behavioral Response and the Value of Health
by Emily Oster #21600
Abstract; PDF

Neighborhoods, Fatherhood and Race

Philip Cohen writes about a new paper by Raj Chetty, et al. and the role race plays, even while it is missing from the data:

The tricky thing with this data, and I don’t blame Chetty et al. for this, although I would like them to say more about it, is that they don’t know the race of the children. The data are from tax records, which allow you to know the income and marital status of the parents, but not the race. But they know where they grew up. So if they have a strong effect of the racial composition of the county kids grow up in, but they don’t know the race of the kids, you have to figure a big part of that is race of the kids — and by “you” I mean someone who knows anything about America.

AAPSS-Annie E. Casey Foundation Forum, February 12, 2016

The American Academy of Political and Social Science and the Annie E. Casey Foundation are co-sponsoring a forum on family policy and child well-being on Capitol Hill:

The AAPSS and the Annie E. Casey Foundation are pleased to be co-sponsoring a forum on family policy and child well-being featuring some of the nation’s leading experts. This briefing will present evidence on what we know about the state of American families, marriage, and the extent to which policy has been promoting positive outcomes for children. Please join us for a stimulating and timely conversation moderated by Michael Gerson, with panelists Andrew Cherlin, Ron Haskins, Sara McLanahan, and Robert Putnam.Senators Tim Scott (R-SC) and Bob Casey (D-PA) are sponsors of this event.

Click here for more information or to RSVP.

Hall of Justice

The Sunlight Foundation has created a project called Hall of Justice which gathers publicly available criminal justice datasets and research.

While not comprehensive, Hall of Justice contains nearly 10,000 datasets and research documents from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories and the federal government. The data was collected between September 2014 and October 2015. We have tagged datasets so that users can search across the inventory for broad topics, ranging from death in custody to domestic violence to prison population. The inventory incorporates government as well as academic data.

H/T Flowing Data

Intelligence, Racial Attitudes and Policies

Max Ehrenfreund of Wonkblog writes about a new study by former PSC trainee Geoffrey Wodke showing that more intelligent people are no more interested in supporting policies designed to improve racial equality (such as Affirmative Action or school busing):

When you get down to the brass tacks of dealing with racial prejudice, though, more intelligent people seem to tunnel back into the woodwork. The new study revealed that smarter respondents are no more likely to support specific policies designed to improve racial equality — even though they are more liberal on other issues and are more likely to see discrimination as a problem.

Achievement Gap Between Boys and Girls

Jeff Guo of the Wonkblog writes about new research into the reasons behind the educational achievement gap between boys and girls:

A team of economists from MIT, Northwestern, and the University of Florida has been investigating the question of the female advantage using a vast trove of data collected by the state of Florida. In their preliminary research, they have found that upbringing counts for a lot. The gender gap gets wider in poorer families. Girls from disadvantaged backgrounds are much more likely to succeed than boys raised under the same circumstances.

Now, in a new paper released Monday, the economists have found additional evidence that bad schools exacerbate the differences in academic achievement between boys and girls.

NBER Working Papers

Parental Incentives and Early Childhood Achievement: A Field Experiment in Chicago Heights
by Roland G. Fryer, Jr., Steven D. Levitt, John A. List #21477
Abstract; PDF

When Incentives Backfire: Spillover Effects in Food Choice
by Manuela Angelucci, Silvia Prina, Heather Royer, Anya Samek #21481
Abstract; PDF

The Role of Time Preferences and Exponential-Growth Bias in Retirement Savings
by Gopi Shah Goda, Matthew R. Levy, Colleen Flaherty Manchester, Aaron Sojourner, Joshua Tasoff #21482
Abstract; PDF

The Impact of Social Security Income on Cognitive Function at Older Ages
by Padmaja Ayyagari, David Frisvold #21484
Abstract; PDF

Panel Data Hedonics: Rosen’s First Stage and Difference-in-Differences as “Sufficient Statistics”
by H. Spencer Banzhaf #21485
Abstract; PDF

The Effect of Hospital/Physician Integration on Hospital Choice
by Laurence C. Baker, M. Kate Bundorf, Daniel P. Kessler #21497
Abstract; PDF

Health Care Spending: Historical Trends and New Directions
by Alice Chen, Dana Goldman #21501
Abstract; PDF

The Effects of Test-based Retention on Student Outcomes over Time: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from Florida
by Guido Schwerdt, Martin R. West, Marcus A. Winters #21509
Abstract; PDF

The Value of Socialized Medicine: The Impact of Universal Primary Healthcare Provision on Birth and Mortality Rates in Turkey
by Resul Cesur, Pinar Mine Guenes, Erdal Tekin, Aydogan Ulker #21510
Abstract; PDF

Missing Unmarried Women
by Siwan Anderson, Debraj Ray #21511
Abstract; PDF

Assessing Incentives for Adverse Selection in Health Plan Payment Systems
by Timothy J. Layton, Randall P. Ellis, Thomas G. McGuire #21531
Abstract; PDF

School Vouchers: A Survey of the Economics Literature
by Dennis Epple, Richard E. Romano, Miguel Urquiola #21523
Abstract; PDF

Can Universal Screening Increase the Representation of Low Income and Minority Students in Gifted Education?
by David Card, Laura Giuliano #21519
Abstract; PDF

The Distributional Consequences of Public School Choice
by Christopher Avery, Parag A. Pathak #21525
Abstract; PDF

Toilets Can Work: Short and Medium Run Health Impacts of Addressing Complementarities and Externalities in Water and Sanitation
by Esther Duflo, Michael Greenstone, Raymond Guiteras, Thomas Clasen #21521
Abstract; PDF

Investing in Schools: Capital Spending, Facility Conditions, and Student Achievement
by Francisco Martorell, Kevin M. Stange, Isaac McFarlin #21515
Abstract; PDF

The Impact of Foreclosure Delay on U.S. Employment
by Kyle F. Herkenhoff, Lee E. Ohanian #21532
Abstract; PDF

Support for Redistribution in an Age of Rising Inequality: New Stylized Facts and Some Tentative Explanations
by Vivekinan Ashok, Ilyana Kuziemko, Ebonya Washington #21529
Abstract; PDF

Experimenting with Measurement Error: Techniques with Applications to the Caltech Cohort Study
by Ben Gillen, Erik Snowberg, Leeat Yariv #21517
Abstract; PDF

Demographics and Aggregate Household Saving in Japan, China, and India
by Chadwick C. Curtis, Steven Lugauer, Nelson C. Mark #21555
Abstract; PDF

Poverty and Financial Literacy

Max Ehrenfreund, writing for Wonkblog, examines research presented at the 2016 American Economic Association’s annual meeting by Anuj Shah and collaborators showing that the the poor do better on tests of financial common sense:

If you spend all your time thinking about money, chances are, you’re going to get pretty good at thinking about money. Indeed, new research suggests that the poor — for whom concerns about cash are inescapable — are not as prone to certain financial mistakes often made by the affluent.

“The poor spend a lot more time on mundane, everyday expenses. They’re focused on money,” said Anuj Shah, a psychologist at the University of Chicago and one of the authors of the research, which was published last year and presented earlier this month at the American Economic Association’s annual meeting.

A New FiveThirtyEight Podcast

In addition to their weekly podcast on data, What’s the Point?, as well as their sports podcast, Hot Takedown, FiveThirtyEight has launched an election podcast called, appropriately enough, FiveThirtyEight Elections.

Reasons People Give for Not Being in the Labor Force, 2004 & 2014

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has released a chart comparing the reasons given for not being in the labor force in 2004 and 2014.

The proportion of the working-age population reporting school attendance as the main reason for being out of the labor force rose from 5.0 percent in 2004 to 6.4 percent in 2014. The percentage who cited illness or disability as the main reason increased from 5.5 percent to 6.5 percent over that same period. The proportion citing home responsibilities declined from 6.0 percent in 2004 to 5.4 percent in 2014.

For more information, see the Beyond the Numbers article “People who are not in the labor force: why aren’t they working?,” by Steven F. Hipple.

H/T Data Detectives