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Liaw, Kao-Lee, Ji-Ping Lin, and William H. Frey. 1998. "Impacts of Low-skilled Immigration on the Internal Migration of the US-born Low-skilled Americans in the United States: An Assessment in a Multivariate Context." The Journal of Population Studies, 23: 5-24.
This paper assesses the impacts of low-skilled immigration on the interstate migration of the US-born low-skilled Americans, based on the disaggregated data of the 1990 Census. Our results reveal that the push effects of the immigration on the departure process was much stronger than its discouraging and complementary effects on the destination choice process; and that the push effects of low-skilled immigration are (1) stronger on whites than on non-whites, (2) much stronger on the poor than the non-poor, (3) weaker on the 15-64 age group than on older age groups, and (4) the strongest on poor whites.