Focusing on the multiethnic, rural population of Nepal, where public education has been established during the lifetime of the current generation, this study seeks to test several hypotheses regarding gender differences in educational attainment during the introduction of mass education. Social change within the community is also studied for its impact on individual educational attainment. It is believed that changes in education, employment, & consumption opportunities would encourage school attendance for both males & females. The family organization provides the framework for studying the relationship between macrolevel social change & gender differences in educational attainment. It was found that changes in community, especially the introduction of nonfamily services & organizations, did influence school attendance for both boys & girls, but it did not change the gender gap in school exit. Of female students, 32.7% left school for family formation activities, while 16.0% of males left for employment. 3 Tables, 4 Figures. L. A. Hoffman.