House, James S., James M. Lepkowski, David R. Williams, R.P. Mero, Paula M. Lantz, S.A. Robert, and J. Chen. 2000. "Excess Mortality Among Urban Residents: How Much for Whom and Why?" American Journal of Public Health, 90(12): 1989-1904.
The mortality risk of city residence, at least among men, rivals that of major psychosocial risk factors such as race, low income, smoking, and social isolation and merits comparable attention in research and policy.