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Liaw, Kao-Lee, and William H. Frey. 2003. "Location of Adult Children as an Attraction for Black and White Elderly 'Return' and 'Onward' Migrants in the United States: Application of a Three-Level Nested Logit Model with Census Data." Mathematical Population Studies, 10: 75-98.
This article assesses the influence of the location of adult children on the 1985-1990 interstate migration of black and white elderly "non-natives" (i.e., those whose state of residence in 1985 was different from their state of birth) in the United States, based on the application of a three-level nested logit model with 1990 census data. The model accounts for (1) the choice between departing and staying put, (2) the choice between return and onward migration, and (3) the choice of a specific destination. The main findings are as follows. First, elderly non-natives were strongly attracted by the location of their adult children when they made their migration decisions at all levels of the choice framework, and this attraction was stronger for the widowed than for those of other marital statuses. Second, in the return/onward and destination choice processes, the attraction of the location of adult children was found to be stronger for whites than for blacks.