We investigate the impact of family religious life on a vital human relationship: the mother-child bond. We develop a theoretical framework that explains the mechanisms through which family religious involvement influences perceptions of the quality of the mother-child relationship. This framework acknowledges multiple dimensions of religious involvement and the dynamics of involvement across the life course. Intergenerational panel data show that these various dimensions of family religious life have enduring effects on mothers' and children's perceptions of the quality of the mother-child relationship. The extent to which individuals internalize religion as an important part of their lives has broad implications for individuals' social relationships.