Schultz, A., David R. Williams, Barbara A. Israel, A. Becker, E. Parker, Sherman James, and James S. Jackson. 2000. "Unfair Treatment, Neighborhood Effects, and Mental Health in the Detroit Metropolitan Area." Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, 314-332.
Schulz et al analyze the reporting of psychological distress and life satisfaction in a multistage area probability sample of 1,139 African American and white residents of the Detroit metropolitan area aged 18 and older. Both psychological distress and life satisfaction are significantly associated with exposure to unfair treatment and with the proportion of households in the census block group that were below the poverty level.