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Williams, David R. 2003. "The Health of Men: Structured Inequalities and Opportunities." American Journal of Public Health, 93(5): 724-731.
Williams discusses the magnitude of health challenges faced by men in the US. Men were said to have poorer health as compared to women in all socioeconomic groups. They have a more elevated health risk which are caused by multiple factors such as economic marginality, adverse working conditions, and gendered coping response to stress, each of which can lead to high levels of substance use, other health-damaging behaviors, and an aversion to health-protective behaviors.