Williams, David R., and Chiquita Collins. 2004. "Reparations - a Viable Strategy to Address the Enigma of African American Health." American Behavioral Scientist, 47(7): 977-1000.
Black-White differences in health are large, persistent, and in some cases, worsening over time. Racial segregation is a central determinant of Black-White differences in health. The physical separation of the races in residential areas is an institutional mechanism of racism that remains a primary determinant of racial differences in economic circumstances. These differences in social and economic conditions are largely responsible for racial differences in health status. Reparations are a potentially effective strategy to rebuild the infrastructure of disadvantaged, segregated communities. Such investment would enhance the economic circumstances of African American families and communities and also improve their health.