Liang, Jersey, J. Bennett, Neal Krause, E. Kobayashi, H. Kim, W.J. Brown, H. Akiyama, and H. Sugisawa. 2002. "Old Age Mortality in Japan: Does the Socioeconomic Gradient Interact with Gender and Age?" Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 57B(5): S294-S307.
Liang et al examine the socioeconomic inequalities of old age mortality in Japan, with a special emphasis on how inequalities interact with gender and age. They find out that there is an educational crossover effect on mortality among older men, in that, at advanced age, those with less education live longer than those with higher education. There is some evidence that educational differences in the risk of dying tend to converge in the 70 to 79 age group.