Allard, Scott W., and Sheldon H. Danziger. 2002. "Proximity and Opportunity: How Residence and Race Affect the Employment of Welfare Recipients." Housing Policy Debate, 13(4): 675-700.
This paper hypothesizes that welfare recipients who live in closer proximity to employment opportunities are more likely to work and less likely to remain on welfare than those who live further away. We analyze data on the residences of welfare recipients and the location of jobs in the three-county Detroit Metropolitan Area in the late 1990s and find that proximity to employment opportunities is associated with a higher probability of working and of leaving welfare.