Brown, Daniel, R. Riolo, D.T. Robinson, M. North, and W. Rand. 2005. "Spatial Process and Data Models: Toward Integration of Agent-Based Models and GIS." Journal of Geographical Systems, 7(1): 1-23.
The use of object-orientation for both spatial data and spatial process models facilitates their integration, which can allow exploration and explanation of spatial-temporal phenomena. In order to better understand how tight coupling might proceed and to evaluate the possible functional and efficiency gains from such a tight coupling, we identify four key relationships affecting how geographic data (fields and objects) and agent-based process models can interact: identity, causal, temporal and topological. We discuss approaches to implementing tight integration, focusing on a middleware approach that links existing GIS and ABM development platforms, and illustrate the need and approaches with example agent-based models.