Krause, Neal. 2003. "A preliminary assessment of race differences in the relationship between religious doubt and depressive symptoms." Review of Religious Research, 45(2): 93-115.
The purpose of this study is to test a conceptual model that examines the relationship between religious doubt and depressive symptoms in late life. Data from a nationwide survey of older adults provide support for the following hypotheses that were embedded in this conceptual scheme: (1) older people who do not attend church often tend to have more doubts about their faith; (2) older individuals who have doubts about religion will not feel closely connected with others; (3) older people who do not feel a close bond with others will be less likely to forgive people for the things they have done; and (4) older people who are not willing to forgive others will be more likely to experience depressive symptoms. The data further reveal that older blacks are more involved in religion than older whites and that the beneficial impact of religion on depressive symptoms is greater for older African American study participants.