Safron, D.J., John E. Schulenberg, and Jerald Bachman. 2001. "Part-Time Work and Hurried Adolescence: the Links Among Work Intensity, Social Activities, Health Behaviors, and Substance Use." Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 42:425-449.
The present study examines adolescents 'part-time work intensity and its relation to participation in various activities as well as substance use. We consider mechanisms articulated in two theoretical perspectives on how high work intensity is associated with substance use: (1) the "time trade-off perspective," and (2) "the precocious development perspective." Nationally representative data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" project from 8th, 10th and 12th grade students (overall N approximate to 380,000) to address our research questions. Work intensity was found to be linked to more time spent on unstructured social activities, but to less time spent engaged in sports, health behaviors, and school-related activities. Social time use and health behaviors were found to partially mediate the relationship between work hours and substance use. Overall, results provide evidence for a combination of both perspectives.