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Miguel-Tobal, J.J., A. Cano-Vindel, H. Gonzales-Ordi, I. Iruarrizaga, S. Rudenstine, D. Vlahov, and Sandro Galea. 2006. "PTSD and Depression after the Madrid March 11 Train Bombings." Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(1): 69-80.
The March H, 2004, train bombings in Madrid, Spain, caused the largest loss of life from a single terrorist attack in modern European history. We used a cross-sectional random digit dial survey of Madrid residents to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression in the general population of Madrid 1 to 3 months after the March 11 train bombings. Of respondents 2.3% reported symptoms consistent with PTSD related to the March 11 bombings and 8.0yo of respondents reported symptoms consistent with major depression. The prevalence of PTSD was substantially lower, but the prevalence of depression was comparable to estimates reported after the September 11 attacks in Manhattan. The findings suggest that across cities, the magnitude of a terrorist attack may be the primary determinant of the prevalence of PTSD in the general population, but other factors may be responsiblefor determining the population prevalence of depression.
Countries of focus: Spain, United States.