Home > Publications . Search All . Browse All . Country . Browse PSC Pubs . PSC Report Series

PSC In The News

RSS Feed icon

Lam says tightening global labor market good for American workers

Johnston says e-cigs may reverse two-decades of progress on smoking reduction

Mueller-Smith finds incarceration increases the likelihood of committing more, and more serious, crimes

Highlights

Bob Willis awarded 2015 Jacob Mincer Award for Lifetime Contributions to the Field of Labor Economics

David Lam is new director of Institute for Social Research

Elizabeth Bruch wins Robert Merton Prize for paper in analytic sociology

Elizabeth Bruch wins ASA award for paper in mathematical sociology

Next Brown Bag

PSC Brown Bags will be back fall 2015


Michael R. Elliott photo

Effectiveness of child safety seats vs seat belts in reducing risk for death in children in passenger vehicle crashes

Publication Abstract

Elliott, Michael R., M.J. Kallan, D.R. Durbin, and F.K. Winston. 2006. "Effectiveness of child safety seats vs seat belts in reducing risk for death in children in passenger vehicle crashes." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160(6), 617-621.

Objective: To provide an estimate of benefit, if any, of child restraint systems over seat belts alone for children aged from 2 through 6 years.

Design: Cohort study.

Setting: A sample of children in US passenger vehicle crashes was obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration by combining cases involving a fatality from the US Department of Transportation Fatality Analysis Reporting System with a probability sample of cases without a fatality from the National Automotive Sampling System.

Participants: Children in two-way crashes occurring between 1998 and 2003.

Main Exposure: Use of child restraint systems (rearfacing and forward-facing car seats, and shield and belt-positioning booster seats) vs seat belts. Potentially confounding variables included seating position, vehicle type, model year, driver and passenger ages, and driver survival status.

Main Outcomes Measure: Death of child passengers from injuries incurred during the crash.

Results: Compared with seat belts, child restraints, when not seriously misused (eg, unattached restraint, child restraint system harness not used, 2 children restrained with 1 seat belt) were associated with a 28% reduction in risk for death (relative risk, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.97) in children aged 2 through 6 years after adjusting for seating position, vehicle type, model year, driver and passenger ages, and driver survival status. When including cases of serious misuse, the effectiveness estimate was slightly lower (21%) (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.05).

Conclusion: Based on these findings as well as previous epidemiological and biomechanical evidence for child restraint system effectiveness in reducing nonfatal injury risk, efforts should continue to promote use of child restraint systems through improved laws and with education and disbursement programs.

Browse | Search : All Pubs | Next