Donoghue, A. J., V. Nadkarni, Michael R. Elliott, and D. B. Durbin. 2006. "Effect of Hospital Characteristics on Outcomes from Pediatric Cardiac Resuscitation: A Report from the National Registry of CPR." Pediatrics, 118: 995-1001.
OBJECTIVE. Cardiac arrest is uncommon among pediatric patients. Prehospital data demonstrate differences in care processes between children and adults receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation and advanced life support. We sought to evaluate whether children receiving in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation would attain superior 24-hour survival in hospitals with a higher level of pediatric physician staffing, greater intensity of pediatric care services, and higher pediatric patient volume.
METHODS. A retrospective cohort of 778 hospital inpatients aged < 18 years receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation was identified from the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation from January 2000 to December 2002. Data on hospital pediatric facilities were obtained via telephone survey. Univariate analyses comparing 24-hour survivors and nonsurvivors were conducted using Wilcoxon rank-sum testing for continuous variables and chi(2) analysis for dichotomous variables. Multivariate regression analysis was done to examine hospital characteristics as independent predictors of 24-hour survival.
RESULTS. Complete data were available for 677 patients. Univariate analyses showed an association between several pediatric-specific facility characteristics and 24-hour survival. After accounting for indicators of pre-event clinical condition and monitoring, multivariate analysis showed improved 24-hour survival in hospitals staffed by pediatric residents and surgeons and pediatric residents, surgeons, and fellows than for hospitals with no pediatric physician staffing or pediatric surgeons alone. Measures of available facilities and patient volume were not associated with improved outcome.
CONCLUSIONS. Improved 24-hour survival for children receiving in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with the presence of pediatric residents and fellows.