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Decline of cash assistance and child well-being, Luke Shaefer
Downes, K.J., J.P. Metlay, L.M. Bell, K.L. McGowan, Michael R. Elliott, and S.S. Shah. 2008. "Polymicrobial bloodstream infections among children and adolescents with central venous catheters evaluated in ambulatory care." Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(3): 387-394.
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an ever-present concern for clinicians evaluating ill-appearing pediatric patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) in the ambulatory care setting. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of a cohort of 200 pediatric patients who were evaluated in the ambulatory care setting and who were found to have laboratory-confirmed BSI in the context of a CVC. This study sought to compare patients with polymicrobial versus monomicrobial BSIs to identify potential risk factors for polymicrobial BSI. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients enrolled in the study, 73 (37%) had a polymicrobial BSI. Patients with polymicrobial BSI were more likely than those with monomicrobial BSI to be younger (P=.002) and less likely to have been recently discharged from the hospital (P=.01). The odds of a polymicrobial BSI were >4 times greater for patients aged <3 years than for those aged >or=3 years (odds ratio, 4.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-12.29), and the odds were 50% lower for those discharged from the hospital in the prior 7 days than for those without recent hospitalization (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.95) after controlling for an underlying cancer diagnosis and the time of year during which a patient presented. Recent antibiotic use, recent BSI, duration that the CVC had been in place, and underlying gastrointestinal dysfunction were not associated with a risk of polymicrobial BSI. CONCLUSIONS: Younger children and those who had not recently been discharged from the hospital had an increased risk of developing catheter-related polymicrobial BSI. Special consideration should be given to the increased likelihood of polymicrobial BSIs in these pediatric patients when initiating empirical antimicrobial therapy.
Country of focus: United States of America.