Ehlen, P., M.F. Schober, and Frederick G. Conrad. 2007. "Modeling speech disfluency to predict conceptual misalignment in speech survey interfaces." Discourse Processes, 44(3): 245-265.
Computer-based interviewing systems could use models of respondent disfluency behaviors to predict a need for clarification of terms in survey questions. This study compares simulated speech interfaces that use two such models-a generic model and a stereotyped model that distinguishes between the speech of younger and older speakers-to several non-modeling speech interfaces in a task where respondents provided answers to survey questions from fictional scenarios. The modeling procedure found that the best predictor of conceptual misalignment was a critical Goldilocks range for response latency-hat is, a response time that is neither too slow nor too fast-outside of which responses are more likely to be conceptually misaligned. Different Goldilocks ranges are effective for younger and older speakers.