Stone, M.R., B.L. Barber, and Jacquelynne S. Eccles. 2008. "We knew them when: Sixth grade characteristics that predict adolescent high school social identities." Journal of Early Adolescence, 28(2): 304-328.
Discriminant function analysis assessed the predictive relevance of nine characteristics measured in sixth grade for differentiating among social identities claimed 4 years later by 616 participants in the Michigan Study of Life Transitions. For females, the first discriminant function, associated with academic motivation, self-esteem, and appearance, accounted for 47% of between-group variability, and the second ( sports competence and social skills) accounted for 36%. For males, the first discriminant function ( academic ability and self-concept of appearance, in opposite directions) accounted for 54% of variability, and the second ( sports competence) accounted for 30%. Findings suggest that differences among individuals with particular high school social identities predate adolescence and point to differences in the primary predictors of male and female identity categories.