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Hardy, Ellen, Eliana Maria Hebling, Maria Helena de Sousa, Elsbeth Kneuper, and Rachel C. Snow. 2009. "Association between characteristics of current menses and preference for induced amenorrhea." Contraception, 80(3): 266-269.
Background: Several studies suggest that many women would prefer to avoid menses altogether, but few studies have examined the social or clinical predictors of such preference.
Study Design: In total, 1224 healthy women of reproductive age were surveyed in Brazil, Germany and the United States regarding social, menstrual and reproductive characteristics and preferences for various dimensions of menstruation, including the ideal interval between menses. The extent to which a preference to never bleed was predicted by current experiences with menses was evaluated.
Results: Long menses, menstrual pain and a perceived high cost of pads and tampons were predictive of preferring amenorrhea over all other menstrual patterns after controlling for age, parity and education. Independent significant associations were also found with increasing degrees of life stress and ever use of injectable contraceptives.
Conclusion: A negative experience with menstruation, a high ranking of life stress and ever use of injectable contraception were independently associated with a preference to avoid menses altogether.
Countries of focus: Brazil, Germany, United States.