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Gutierrez, O., R. Katz, C. Peralta, I. de Boer, D. Siscovick, M. Wolf, Ana Diez Roux, B. Kestenbaum, J. Nettleton, and J. Ix. 2012. "Associations of Socioeconomic Status and Processed Food Intake With Serum Phosphorus Concentration in Community-Living Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)." Journal of Renal Nutrition, 22(5): 480-489.
Objective: Higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Low socioeconomic status is linked with higher serum phosphorus concentration, but the reasons are unclear. Poor individuals disproportionately consume inexpensive processed foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food preservatives. Accordingly, we hypothesized that excess intake of these foods accounts for a relationship between lower socioeconomic status and higher serum phosphorus concentration. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting and Participants: We examined a random cohort of 2,664 participants with available phosphorus measurements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based sample of individuals free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease from across the United States. Predictor Variables: Socioeconomic status, the intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food additives (processed meats, sodas), and frequency of fast-food consumption. Outcomes: Fasting morning serum phosphorus concentrations.
PMCID: PMC3321388. (Pub Med Central)