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Axinn, William. "The Influence of Interviewer Gender on Responses to Sensitive Questions in Less Developed Settings: Evidence from Nepal." PSC Research Report No. 89-151. July 1989.
Criticisms of the use of survey methods in less developed settings have led to the development of alternative data gathering techniques. This paper examines interviewer gender effects on responses as a source of non-sampling error that can be remedied to provide more reliable and valid data from the applications of survey methods in less developed settings. Data from a study featuring the random assignment of interviewers to households, carried out in Nepal, are used to test several hypotheses regarding the influence of interviewer gender. The focus of these tests are responses to sensitive questions and interviewer errors. The results are consistent with the conclusions that female interviewers generate fewer errors and that interviewer gender does affect responses to some sensitive questions.