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Grafova, Irina B., Vicki Freedman, Nicole Lurie, Rizie Kumar, and Jeannette A. Rogowski. 2014. "The difference-in-difference method: Assessing the selection bias in the effects of neighborhood environment on health." Economics and Human Biology, 13(1): 20-33.
This paper uses the difference-in-difference estimation approach to explore the self-selection bias in estimating the effect of neighborhood economic environment on self-assessed health among older adults. The results indicate that there is evidence of downward bias in the conventional estimates of the effect of neighborhood economic disadvantage on self-reported health, representing a lower bound of the true effect.
PMCID: PMC4230701. (Pub Med Central)