Chinkhumba, Jobiba, Susan Godlonton, and Rebecca L. Thornton. 2014. "The demand for medical male circumcision." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 6(2): 152-177.
This paper measures the demand for adult medical male circumcision using an experiment that randomly offered varying-priced subsidies and comprehensive information to 1,600 uncircumcised men in urban Malawi. We find low demand for male circumcision: only 3 percent are circumcised over a three month period. Despite the low overall level of take-up, both price and information are significant determinants of circumcision. Still, the main barriers to male circumcision-cultural norms and fear of pain-are not affected by prices or information. Significant demand generation efforts are needed for this HIV prevention strategy to be effective.