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Frey, William H. 1994. "Immigration and Internal Migration for U.S. States: 1990 Census Findings by Poverty Status and Race." PSC Research Report No. 94-320. September 1994.
This paper presents an analysis of 1990 census migration data for U.S. states (including the District of Columbia). Its text and Appendix tables provide detailed statistics on immigration and internal migration components of 1985-90 population change for individual states, cross tabulated by race, Latino status, poverty status, and, in some cases, educational attainment.
The papers analyses focus on immigration and internal migration components as they affect state poverty populations. New immigrant waves are heavily focused on only a few port of entry states. As a consequence, they have begun to impact upon internal migration flows both into and out of these high immigration states and have also altered the national system of internal migration patterns. This paper addresses the questions: (1) How do the magnitudes of poverty population out-migration from high immigration states compare with those of other states? (2) Is this out-migration selective on particular social and demographic groups? and (3) Is immigration a significant determinant of internal migration of the poverty population?
The results of this analysis are consistent with the view that recent, focused immigration is associated with poverty out-migration among longer-term state residents. At the local level, there is an apparent displacement of low income residents by immigrants which involves more than just numbers of people. Rather, it involves a turnover of race, ethnic and skill-level characteristics in the states poverty population that can impact upon race relations, public service requirements, and labor force quality.
Data used: 1990 U.S. census tabulations of full migration (residence 5 years ago) sample.