Monday, April 21
Grant Miller: Managerial Incentives in Public Service Delivery
PSC congratulates these trainees as they transition to their next professional life chapter.
Follow their Q & A link to learn where they are going and for their reflections on time at Michigan.
Research: social demography, social stratification and quantitative methods
Three Papers on Marriage and Family in China
Assistant Professor, Center for Social Research at Peking University, China, start in January 2014.
Think about research ideas early on and reach out actively to faculty members and fellow students for suggestions on them. One good way to do this is to push yourself present at least once per semester in one of the departmental or PSC student workshops.
Canoe on Huron river!
China is a country of rapid social change and tremendous contextual variations. This dissertation examines how those societal conditions have formed and framed Chinese people’s marriage and family behaviors. Specifically, Chapter 2 reports on a surprising inverted U-shaped trend in age homogamy from 1960 to 2005. One plausible explanation is that intensified economic pressure and rising consumerism during the post-1990s reform era have acted to increase women’s desire to marry men who are more economically established, and thus usually older. Chapter 3 examines how marital behaviors of a unique Chinese Muslim group – Hui – respond to varying conditions of local ethnic marriage markets. Results show that in places with higher Hui concentrations, Hui tend to have higher marriage rates, marry earlier and marry more endogamously. Conditional on being married, the logged odds of exogamy over endogamy is significantly lower in places with higher Hui concentrations; nevertheless, the negative relationship between Hui concentration and the logged odds of exogamy over singleness only holds for women. This indicates the competition between the norm of universal marriage and the norm of endogamy. Moreover, while men are more responsive to the change in Hui concentrations, women are more strictly constrained by the norm of universal marriage than men at all levels of Hui concentration. Men and women are equally restricted by the norm of endogamy. Chapter 4 examines the gender-specific fertility effects on parents’ time use, income and subjective well-being. Using gender of the first child as an instrumental variable based on the regional exemptions to the one-child policy in China, we aim to establish the causal estimates of the fertility effects. Results show that with more children, fathers spend significantly more time working and less time taking care of family members. Mothers, on the other hand, report better subjective well-being. This dissertation contributes toward understanding of the contextual influences, temporal or regional, on individuals’ marriage and family behaviors, under a research setting of transition and diversity. Future directions for this line of research point to the incorporation of theories which account for the setting-specific mechanisms regarding gender, marriage and family.
Gender Ideologies: Insights into Health and Demographic Behaviors
Qualitative Research Specialist Africa Region Gender Practice The World Bank
Starting January 2014
Take advantage of opportunities to work on faculty-sponsored research projects, even if those projects are not related to your specific research interests and even if the faculty are not in your discipline. Especially if you want to do field research and finish your degree in a relatively short amount of time, finding a way to incorporate your research into an ongoing project has many benefits.
The birth of my son, Jesse. :)
The global agenda set at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo called upon researchers and program implementers to address the effects of gender inequality, especially the way inequality shapes sexual and reproductive health and demographic processes. Since then, researchers have documented links between women’s relative disadvantage and negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Less attention has been given to the systems of belief, or gender ideologies, that legitimate ongoing gender inequality. Yet, gender inequality would be unsustainable without supporting beliefs and values that define men and women as different and unequal. Those ideational aspects of gender systems—beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms—are the subject of this dissertation. The three empirical chapters investigate trends in attitudes concerning gender relations or connections between those attitudes and health and demographic behaviors. The first paper examines worldwide trends in attitudes about violence against women. Women in low-income countries have recently become less likely to justify intimate partner violence. The paper documents evidence that global cultural influences may be largely responsible for the observed trend in individual gender attitudes. The second paper uses survey data to test associations between men’s gender attitudes and their risk of HIV in Malawi. The analyses show that men with more egalitarian gender attitudes engage less frequently in sexual behaviors that involve risk of HIV transmission and report lower self-assessed risk of HIV. Finally, the third paper employs qualitative data from Malawi to explore the relevance of ideas about gender to men’s fertility. The paper demonstrates that gender norms are imbued with ideals relevant to men’s fertility preferences and behaviors. Each paper begins from the premise that ideational factors, such as social norms and individual attitudes, play an important role in shaping behavior, and are central to the perpetuation of gender inequality. All three papers use different measures of ideas about gender and all three posit that attention to these ideational elements is crucial to understanding individual motivations for health and demographic behaviors.
Social Patterning of Health Risk Behaviors: the Mediating Role of Exposure to Childhood Adversity
Applied for a postdoctoral training position supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) to work on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID).
Should the application be successful, my focus will be on the transition from childhood to adulthood among PSID children, 2013 and 2015. I will examine how individual agency in adolescence works as a mechanism that connects family background factors with educational attainment in young adulthood. Specifically, whether life course agency in adolescence is linked to post-secondary educational transitions in young adulthood and how adolescents’ life course agency is shaped by family background, socioeconomic status, and demographic characteristics.
First, take advantage of the many ways that the University of Michigan is a magnet for excellence in scholarship by seeking and attending the many seminars, workshops and on-campus conferences that take place most every day. Second, meet with senior and rising scholars when they come to campus for these events.
Work hard, play hard. Work: the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Summer Program in Quantitative Methods is like summer camp for research devotees. Play: the University Musical Society (UMS) brings world class performing arts to campus and has an exceptional discount ticket program that makes attendance affordable.
Exposure to adverse childhood experience is common and has serious long-term serious consequences for physical and mental health as well as socioeconomic attainment. Yet we have limited understanding of what adverse experiences happen to which children. To address this knowledge gap, three research papers investigate exposure to adverse childhood experiences. The papers assess the childhood social and economic circumstances that shape exposure to adverse experiences, the link between childhood social and economic status (SES) and patterns in type and amount of exposure, and whether exposure to adverse experience mediates the relationship between childhood SES and health risk behavior. In Chapter 2, I demonstrate that while exposure to multiple adverse childhood experiences is associated with greater odds of current smoking and lower odds of former smoking in adulthood, exposure to adversity does not account for the association between childhood SES and adult smoking status. Chapter 3 explores links between childhood social and economic circumstances and patterns in type and amount of exposure to adverse childhood experience. Except for the consistent association with welfare receipt, aspects of disadvantaged childhood SES have varying associations with different adverse experiences.[sab1] Additionally, disadvantaged childhood SES was associated with greater risk for multiple (3 or more) exposure. Chapter 4 examines the association between childhood SES and adolescent substance use, and whether adverse experiences account for the association between childhood SES and adolescent substance use. Results suggest that while disadvantaged childhood SES is associated with increased odds of adolescent substance use, and exposure to most every adverse childhood experience is associated with increased odds of adolescent substance use, exposure to adverse experience only mediates the relationship between select childhood SES factors and adolescent use of certain substances. These results highlight the importance of expanding research on adverse childhood experience in population samples with a longitudinal design that represents all SES groups, uses multiple measures of childhood SES, and includes instruments that represent the universe of stressors for children.