Hicken et al. find that 44% of black women in U.S. have family member in prison
"New study shows 44% of Black women have incarcerated family member" - San Francisco Bay View. 5/27/2015.
Analyzing GSS data, Hedwig Lee, Tyler McCormick, Margaret Hicken, and Christopher Wildeman find that 44% of U.S. black women and 32% of black men have a family member imprisoned, compared to 12% of white women and 6% of white men. This racial disparity, the authors say, suggests that "mass imprisonment has fundamentally reshaped inequality not only for the adult men for whom imprisonment has become common, but also for their families."