Monthly Archive for November, 2008

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New Working Papers from the NBER

Effects of Welfare Reform on Educational Acquisition of Young Adult Women
Dhaval M. Dave, Nancy E. Reichman, Hope Corman
Abstract; PDF
Identification and Estimation of ‘Irregular’ Correlated Random Coefficient Models
Bryan S. Graham, James Powell
Abstract; PDF
Are Mixed Neighborhoods Always Unstable? Two-Sided and One-Sided Tipping
David Card, Alexandre Mas, Jesse Rothstein
Abstract; PDF
Are Big Cities Really Bad Places to Live? Improving Quality-of-Life Estimates across Cities
David Albouy
Abstract; PDF

New Working Papers from the NBER

Identification with Imperfect Instruments
Aviv Nevo, Adam M. Rosen
Abstract; PDF
Work Expectations, Realizations, and Depression in Older Workers
Tracy A. Falba, William T. Gallo, Jody L. Sindelar
Abstract; PDF
Teacher Quality in Educational Production: Tracking, Decay, and Student Achievement
Jesse Rothstein
Abstract; PDF
When Does Improving Health Raise GDP?
Quamrul H. Ashraf, Ashley Lester, David N. Weil
Abstract; PDF
Measuring Labor Earnings Inequality using Public-Use March Current Population Survey Data: The Value of Including Variances and Cell Means When Imputing Topcoded Values
Richard V. Burkhauser, Shuaizhang Feng, Jeff Larrimore
Abstract; PDF
Estimating Welfare in Insurance Markets Using Variation in Prices
Liran Einav, Amy Finkelstein, Mark R. Cullen
Abstract; PDF
Urban Inequality
Edward L. Glaeser, Matthew G. Resseger, Kristina Tobio
Abstract; PDF
Time Spent in Home Production in the 20th Century: New Estimates from Old Data
Valerie A. Ramey
Abstract; PDF
Psychiatric Disorders and Employment: New Evidence from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES)
Pinka Chatterji, Margarita Alegria, David Takeuchi
Abstract; PDF
Sufficient Statistics for Welfare Analysis: A Bridge Between Structural and Reduced-Form Methods
Raj Chetty
Abstract; PDF
The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas
Mark Duggan, Randi Hjalmarsson, Brian A. Jacob
Abstract; PDF
When The Saints Come Marching In: Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Student Evacuees
Bruce Sacerdote
Abstract; PDF
The Transmission of Women’s Fertility, Human Capital and Work Orientation Across Immigrant Generations
Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn, Albert Yung-Hsu Liu, Kerry L. Papps
Abstract; PDF

Still Working Hard, Still Falling Short

Still Working Hard, Still Falling Short
Source: The Working Poor Families Project

This report by the Working Poor Families Project provides new analysis of U.S. Census data and clearly highlights the major challenges facing America. Inside the report you’ll find:

* State-by-state rankings on low-income working families;
* Myths and facts about low-income working families;
* A look at specific states and how they’re faring, and
*A call for stronger policies at the state and federal level.

The economic turmoil of 2008 is making it even more difficult for working families to achieve economic success. Federal and state governments must do a better job of supporting families seeking to work their way into the middle class and restore the promise of the American Dream.

Full Report (PDF)

Inside Obama

Inside Obama’s Sweeping Victory
Source: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press

Barack Obama captured the White House on the strength of a substantial electoral shift toward the Democratic Party and by winning a number of key groups in the middle of the electorate. Overall, 39% of voters were Democrats while 32% were Republicans — a dramatic shift from 2004 when the electorate was evenly divided. The Democratic advantage in Election Day party identification was significantly larger than in either of Bill Clinton’s victories.

Migration and Human Rights

International Migration and Human Rights: Challenges and Opportunities on the Threshold of the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Source: Global Migration Group (GMG)
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, whose sixtieth anniversary we celebrate this year, remains the primary international articulation of the fundamental rights of all members of the human family. To mark the anniversary, the member agencies of the Global Migration Group have embarked on a timely, collaborative effort to analyze the challenges of protecting the human rights of international migrants.
This report is the product of that process. Among its main findings is the assessment that despite the many positive contributions migration makes to the development of countries of origin and destination, it is essential that migrants are seen not solely as agents of development. They are human beings with rights that States have an obligation to protect even when they exercise their sovereign right to determine who enters and remains in their territory.
Cooperation between governments in countries of origin, transit and destination, and among non-governmental organizations, civil society and migrants themselves, is vital for ensuring that international human rights instruments are implemented and that migrants are aware of their rights and obligations. Groups with special needs, including migrant children, female labour migrants in the informal sector, trafficking victims and irregular migrants, as well as refugees and asylum seekers, are particularly deserving of and entitled to effective protection.

Full Document (PDF)

Simulated Effects of Changes to State and Federal Asset Eligibility Policies for the Food Stamp Program

Simulated Effects of Changes to State and Federal Asset Eligibility Policies for the Food Stamp Program
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
By: Karen Cunnyngham and James Ohls
This study uses a microsimulation model to assess the effect of changes to State-level Food Stamp Program (FSP) asset rules on household eligibility and on the benefits that eligible households would receive. The findings show that 7 percent of households eligible in 2006 were eligible only through expanded categorical eligibility rules that exempted the households from the standard Federal FSP asset rules and that 1 percent of eligible households were eligible because of State rules that counted fewer vehicle assets toward the asset limits. The number of eligible households would increase by about 3 percent if asset limits were raised by $2,000, by 22 percent if the asset test were eliminated, by 2 percent if retirement accounts were excluded, and by less than half of 1 percent if all vehicles were excluded. Eligibility across States varied widely, with 32 percent of households eligible in at least one State but not eligible in all States. The Food Stamp Program was renamed to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in October 2008.

Entire Report

Technical Appendix

Teen Pregnancy and Television

RAND Study Is First to Link Viewing of Sexual Content on Television to Subsequent Teen Pregnancy
Source: RAND Corporation

Adolescents who have high levels of exposure to television programs that contain sexual content are twice as likely to be involved in a pregnancy over the following three years as their peers who watch few such shows, according to a new RAND Corporation study.

The study, published in the November edition of the journal Pediatrics, is the first to establish a link between teenagers’ exposure to sexual content on TV and either pregnancies among girls or responsibility for pregnancies among boys.

Full Press Release

Study Brief

Full article citation:
Does Watching Sex on Television Predict Teen Pregnancy? Findings From a National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Anita Chandra, Steven C. Martino, Rebecca L. Collins, Marc N. Elliott, Sandra H. Berry, David E. Kanouse, and Angela Miu
Pediatrics 2008; 122: 1047-1054.
[Abstract] [Full text] [PDF] (requires University of Michigan Authentication)

World of Work Report 2008

Global income inequality gap is vast and growing
Source: International Labour Organization

Despite strong economic growth that produced millions of new jobs since the early 1990s, income inequality grew dramatically in most regions of the world and is expected to increase due to the current global financial crisis, according to a new study published today by the research arm of the International Labour Organization (ILO).

The new report, entitled World of Work Report 2008: Income inequalities in the age of financial globalization, produced by the ILO’s International Institute for Labour Studies also notes that a major share of the cost of the financial and economic crisis will be borne by hundreds of millions of people who haven’t shared in the benefits of recent growth.

Executive Summary; Full Report (PDF’s)

Congressional Hearing on Family Poverty

Leave No Family Behind: How Can We Reduce the Rising Number of American Families Living in Poverty?
Source: U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee
Date: September 25, 2008

U.S. Senator Charles E. Schumer and Representative Carolyn B. Maloney, Chairman and Vice Chair respectively of the Joint Economic Committee (JEC), held a hearing on poverty in the United States on Thursday, September 25, 2008 at 10:00 am in Room 562 of the Dirksen Senate Office Building. The JEC hearing entitled, “Leave No Family Behind: How Can We Reduce the Rising Number of American Families Living in Poverty”, featured Mayor David N. Cicilline and poverty experts who examined whether the outdated federal poverty measurements are preventing resources from reaching families and elderly Americans and what legislation may be appropriate to drastically reduce the number of U.S. families living in poverty. Since 2000, the number of Americans living in poverty jumped by 5.7 million to 37.3 million; and the poverty rate rose to 12.5 percent in 2007.

PDFs of Testimonies and Archived Videos