When It Rains It Pours : The Long-run Economic Impacts of Salt Iodization in the United States
Adhvaryu, Achyuta, Steven Bednar, Teresa Molinari, Quynh Nguyen, and Anant Nyshadham. Forthcoming. "When It Rains It Pours : The Long-run Economic Impacts of Salt Iodization in the United States." Review of Economics and Statistics.
In 1924, The Morton Salt Company began nationwide distribution of iodine-fortified salt. Access to iodine, a key determinant of cognitive ability, rose sharply. We compare outcomes for cohorts exposed in utero with those of slightly older, unexposed cohorts, across states with high versus low baseline iodine deficiency. Income increased by 11%; labor force participation rose 0.68 percentage points; and full-time work went up 0.9 percentage points due to increased iodine availability. These impacts were largely driven by changes in the economic outcomes of young women. In later adulthood, both men and women had higher family incomes due to iodization.