NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Urine: Evaluation for Application in Prostate Cancer Detection
MacKinnon, Neil, Trivellore Raghunathan, Wencheng Ge, Peisong Han, Javed Siddiqui, John T. Wei, Arul M. Chinnaiyan, Thekkelnaycke M. Rajendiran, an, et al. 2019. "NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Urine: Evaluation for Application in Prostate Cancer Detection." Natural Product Communications, 14(5).
Detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and distinguishing indolent versus aggressive forms of the disease is a critical clinical challenge. The current clinical test is circulating prostate-specific antigen levels, which faces particular challenges in cancer diagnosis in the range of 4 to 10 ng/mL. Thus, a concerted effort toward building a noninvasive biomarker panel has developed. In this report, the hypothesis that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived metabolomic profiles measured in the urine of biopsy-negative versus biopsy-positive individuals would nominate a selection of potential biomarker signals was investigated. 1H NMR spectra of urine samples from 317 individuals (111 biopsy-negative, 206 biopsy-positive) were analyzed. A double cross-validation partial least squares-discriminant analysis modeling technique was utilized to nominate signals capable of distinguishing the two classes. It was observed that after variable selection protocols were applied, a subset of 29 variables produced an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.94 after logistic regression analysis, whereas a "master list" of 18 variables produced a receiver operating characteristic ROC) AUC of 0.80. As proof of principle, this study demonstrates the utility of NMR-based metabolomic profiling of urine biospecimens in the nomination of PCa-specific biomarker signals and suggests that further investigation is certainly warranted.