Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence Among Recently Married Dyads Residing in the Slums of Pune, India: Development and Rationale for a Dyadic Intervention
Kalokhe, Ameeta Shivdas, Rob Stephenson, Sandhya Iyer, Tuman Katendra, Keshav Gadhe, Ambika R. Kolhe, Anuradha Paranjape, Carlos del Rio, an, et al. 2019. "Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence Among Recently Married Dyads Residing in the Slums of Pune, India: Development and Rationale for a Dyadic Intervention." JMIR Research Protocols, 8(1): e11533.
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is frequently experienced by women of low socioeconomic status in India. It is a human rights violation and associated with negative effects on physical and mental well-being, underscoring the need for effective prevention strategies. Objective: This study aimed to develop a dyadic intervention for the primary prevention of IPV among newly married couples residing in slum communities in India. Methods: The intervention was developed using a community-based, mixed-methods design rooted in couple-interdependence theory and guided by the intervention mapping (IM) framework. It used the six critical IM steps to inform the content and delivery of the intervention: (1) needs assessment, (2) preparation of matrices of change objectives, (3) selection of theory-based methods and practical applications, (4) production of intervention components and materials, (5) intervention adoption and implementation, and (6) evaluation planning. Results: The resulting Ghya Bharari Ekatra (Take a Flight Together) intervention is intended to be delivered in 6 weekly sessions by a trained pair of male and female lay community educators to groups of 3 to 5 newly married couples in the community in which they reside. It uses games, discussions, self-reflections, and skill-building exercises to cover the following topics: enhancing relationship quality time, self-esteem and resilience, communication and conflict management, goal setting and implementation, sexual communication and sexual health and reproductive health knowledge, and redefining and challenging norms surrounding IPV occurrence. The formative work guided the protocol, including module duration and timing (2-hour sessions of convenience to participants), ordering of modules (based on potential level of interest and sensitivity of the topics), content (ie, informed scripts of role plays and films), intervention delivery methods (ie, interactive activities), and selection of the interventionists (based on capacity to connect with participants) and venue (community-based, convenient, and safe spaces). Ghya Bharari Ekatra was piloted between January and May 2018, and evaluation is presently underway. Conclusions: Ghya Bharari Ekatra is evidence-based, grounded in intervention-mapping, and developed and iteratively refined using a community-based participatory research approach, suggesting it has great potential to be an acceptable and effective solution to preventing IPV among newly married couples. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03332134; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03332134 [JMIR Res Protoc 2019;8(1):e11533]