Alcohol use and cigarette smoking as risk factors for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis

Archived Abstract of Former PSC Researcher

Debenedet, A., Trivellore Raghunathan, J. Wing, E. Wamsteker, and M. DiMagno. 2009. "Alcohol use and cigarette smoking as risk factors for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis." Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 7(3): 353-8e4.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol use and cigarette smoking are associated with various pancreatic diseases, but it is not known whether they associate with post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP). We performed a retrospective case-control study to determine if these activities increase the risk of PEP. METHODS: We identified 7638 patients who had undergone ERCP in the University of Michigan Health System and applied exclusion criteria to identify 123 with PEP. We randomly selected 308 age- and sex-stratified controls (2.5-fold case sample); after applying exclusion criteria 248 remained. In a masked fashion, we collected data for alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and 5 internal control variables: suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), pancreatic sphincterotomy, moderate/difficult cannulation, 2 or more pancreatic injections, and pancreatic stent placement. RESULTS: The univariate model showed an increased frequency of PEP in current drinkers (P < .001), former drinkers (P < .001), and former smokers (P < .001), as well as patients who were suspected of having SOD (P < .001), had undergone pancreatic sphincterotomy (P < .001), had a moderate/difficult cannulation (P = .001), and/or had 2 or more pancreatic injections (P = .007). The frequency of PEP was reduced in current smokers (P < .001). The multivariate model showed that the only independent significant predictors of PEP were current drinking (odds ratio [OR], 4.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.60-8.50; P < .0001), former cigarette smoking (OR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.28-8.44; P < .013), suspected SOD (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.94-7.02; P < .001), and pancreatic sphincterotomy (OR, 5.91; 95% CI, 2.04-17.14; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Current alcohol use and potentially former cigarette smoking are new risk factors for PEP. It is important to consider these variables in designing PEP prevention trials.

PMCID: PMC2980914. (Pub Med Central)

Country of focus: United States of America.

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