Changes in Educational Inequality in China, 1990-2005: Evidence from the Population Census Data
Wu, Xiaogang, and Zhuoni Zhang. 2010. "Changes in Educational Inequality in China, 1990-2005: Evidence from the Population Census Data." In Globalization, Changing Demographics, and Educational Challenges in East Asia (Research in the Sociology of Education, Volume 17) edited by Bruce Fuller and Emily Hannum. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
This chapter examines the trend in school enrollment and transitions to senior high school and to college in China for selected young cohorts since the 1990s, based on the analyses of the sample data from population censuses in 1990 and 2000 and the mini-census in 2005. We pay particular attention to educational inequality based on gender and the household registration system (hukou) in the context of educational expansion. Results show a substantial increase in educational opportunities over time at all levels. In particular, women have gained relatively more; gender inequality has decreased over time, and the gap in college enrollments was even reversed to favor women in 2005. However, rural–urban inequality was enlarged in the 1990s. The educational expansion has mainly benefited females and urban residents.
Country of focus: China.