Collaborative chronic care models for mental health conditions
Miller, Christopher J., Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Brian E. Perron, Amy M. Kilbourne, Emily Woltmann, and Mark S. Bauer. 2013. "Collaborative chronic care models for mental health conditions." Medical Care, 51(10): 922-930.
Objective Prior meta-analysis indicates that collaborative chronic care models (CCMs) improve mental and physical health outcomes for individuals with mental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the stability of evidence over time and identify patient and intervention factors associated with CCM effects in order to facilitate implementation and sustainability of CCMs in clinical practice.
Method We reviewed 53 CCM trials that analyzed depression, mental quality of life (QOL), or physical QOL outcomes. Cumulative meta-analysis and meta-regression were supplemented by descriptive investigations across and within trials.
Results Most trials targeted depression in the primary care setting, and cumulative meta-analysis indicated that effect sizes favoring CCM quickly achieved significance for depression outcomes, and more recently achieved significance for mental and physical QOL. Four of six CCM elements (patient self-management support, clinical information systems, system redesign, and provider decision support) were common among reviewed trials, while two elements (healthcare organization support and linkages to community resources) were rare. No single CCM element was statistically associated with the success of the model. Similarly, meta-regression did not identify specific factors associated with CCM effectiveness. Nonetheless, results within individual trials suggest that increased illness severity predicts CCM outcomes.
Conclusions Significant CCM trials have been derived primarily from four original CCM elements. Nonetheless, implementing and sustaining this established model will require healthcare organization support. While CCMs have typically been tested as population-based interventions, evidence supports stepped care application to more severely ill individuals. Future priorities include developing implementation strategies to support adoption and sustainability of the model in clinical settings while maximizing fit of this multi-component framework to local contextual factors.
PMCID: PMC3800198. (Pub Med Central)